Explain the Scientific Management Approach of Taylor.
Scientific Management Approach is one of the important contribution of Taylor in the field of Administrative Theory. Aim of this approach is to raise industrial efficiency and productivity. Audio achieve this, he suggested for adoption of scientific methods, in the industrial work, processes and management.
He suggested for using of standardized tools, equipment’s and method for higher production. He provided higher wages on incentives, better working condition, proper training and selection procedure to the work for efficiency and higher productivity he advocated for the scientific and systematic study of each work performed by the worker.
By studying each work or by measuring each and every movement of the worker, he tried to eliminate the unnecessary time use in each task and find out the best way of performing each work. He also suggested for the clear description of each task performed by the worker. It is essential for the workers to know what he should do it is also a duty of the management to provide well planned task to the worker.
Taylor was against the Trade Unions and suggested for individual activity He also suggested for equal division of work and responsibility between worker and management. For workers he also provide high wages, better working condition and mental satisfaction. He advocated mutual collaboration of the workers and management for higher productivity and efficiency of the organisation.
Criticism of Scientific Management.
Taylor’s Scientific Management was criticized by the workers, employees and different psychologists. The viewpoint of these different groups have been discussed below:
From the worker’s viewpoint, Scientific Management is considered as pro-capitalist theory. Because it helped more the owners of industries than the workers. Workers are opposed the Scientific Management theory as it was against the Trade Union Theory. Workers argued that this theory not only destroy Trade Union but also destroy collective bargaining.
Workers felt that although Scientific Management increases the output of workers through standard methods, working conditions,, tools and equipment’s, it will reduce the employment opportunity. Workers also feel that their wages do not rise in the same proportion in which their productivity rises. Under this system workers are supposed to do the routine work just like automatic machine.
According to the manager the introduction of Scientific Management is quite expensive as it require money on standardizing methods of work, working conditions and tools and equipment’s. The managers not appreciate Taylor’s comments on “thumb rule” methods. Managers were opposed to the Taylor’s idea of training programmes for the managers. Because of the difference with the company managers Taylor’s had to resign from Midvale Steel Works and Bethlehem Steel Company.
According to Robert Hoxie, scientific management dealt only with mechanical and not with the human aspects of production. It concerned mainly production, efficiency and managerial problems, without touching on the psychological and emotional problem of workers. It ignores the uncertainty of employment, the routine and monotony of their work.
Management thinkers like, Hoxie, Oliver Sheldon and Sam Lewisohn also criticized Taylor’s work. Sheldon stressed the human aspects of managerial problems whereas Lewisdon emphasis the maintenance of good human relations in an organisation. According to Lewishon, the worker wanted justice, status and opportunity not higher wages or incentives.
According to the psychologists it is in the Scientific Management approach, workers are just like a machine. They have follow the way of doing the job as directed by the management. They have no say in determining the method of doing the job. They are not supposed to take any initiative.
Taylor in his Scientific Management approach, stressed on the money. He assumed that money is the greatest motivating force, wages are paid to the workers according to the piece wage system. There is no minimum wage assumed to the workers. If a worker does more work, then he will get more wages. But in practice, not higher wages or economic factors motivated the workers but the social factors motivated the workers.
Harry Braveman, in his book “Labor and Monoploy Capital” criticized Taylorism that an analysis of Taylor’s work enables us to distinguish three general principles of Scientific Management, such as:
The principle of division of labor from the skills of the workers: It means Taylorism separated workers from their skill and knowledge. As managers possess high skill and knowledge, they have performed the planning function and the workers perform the doing function.
The principle of separation of conception from execution: According to Braveman implementation of Taylorism create a situation where the prerogative power rest in the management and the workers has to simple execute the work. It separated “mind” from “hand”. Those who work with “hand” and those who work with “mind” are separated from each other, do not sit in one table. Under this system, there is a. division of manual and mental labor
The principle of use of monopoly over knowledge to control each step of labor process and its mode of execution: It shows that in Taylorism managerial section monopolized over knowledge of work and control over the worker in each and every aspect of execution of the work.’ This result in domination of managerial class over the workers.
Functional foreman-ship of Taylor was also criticized by many other critics. They say it will be confusion when each worker is kept under the control of eight supervisors. A worker may not be able to satisfy eight supervisors in all the aspects.