Describe the PASS Theory of Intelligence.
The Planning, Attention-Arousal, Simultaneous and Successive (PASS) theory of intelligence, was developed by Das, Nagliery and Kirby (1994). PASS theory is useful to link PASS processes to the brain. The linking of PASS processes to brain becomes helpful, for example, in understanding the loss of sequential and planning functions due to aging in a study of individuals with Down’s Syndrome. The PASS theory provides the theoretical framework for a measurement instrument called the Das-Naglieri.
The theories of Spearman are based on isolating factors after administering several intelligence tests over a large sample of subjects. They did not take into account how an input. This theory has taken its inspiration from the Pioneering neuropsychological researches of Alexander Luria. Luria described human cognitive processes within the framework of three functional units.
The function of the first unit is cortical arousal and attention, the second unit codes information using simultaneous and successive processes and the third unit provides for planning, self-monitoring, and structuring of cognitive activities. There are four main components of the theory, viz, Planning, Attention-Arousal, Simultaneous, and Successive (PASS) processing systems.
Planning is a frontal lobe function. It is, more specifically, associated with the prefrontal cortex and one of the main abilities that distinguishes humans from other primates.
The prefrontal cortex plays a central role in forming goals and objectives and then in devising plans of action required to attain these goals. It selects the cognitive skills required to implement the plans, coordinates these skills, and applies them in a correct order. Finally, the prefrontal cortex is responsible for evaluating our actions as success or failure relative to our intentions.
Planning, therefore, helps us achieve through the selection or development of plans or strategies needed to complete tasks for which a solution is needed and is critical to all activities where the child or adult has to determine how to solve a problem. This includes generation, evaluation, and execution of a plan as well as self-monitoring and impulse control.
Thus, Planning allows for the solution of problems, control of attention, simultaneous, and successive processes, as well as selective utilization of knowledge and skills.
Attention is a mental process that is closely related to the orienting response. The base of the brain allows the organism to direct focused selective attention toward a stimulus over time and resist loss of attention to other stimuli. The longer attention is required the more the activity can be one that demands vigilance. Attention is controlled by intentions and goals and involves knowledge and skills as well as the other PASS processes.
Next, Knowledge base is closely associated with the PASS model and all processes are found within this framework. Knowledge base of the PASS model represents all information obtained from the cultural and social background and throws light on various parts of behaviour. Simultaneous Processing is essential for organization of information into groups or a coherent whole.
The parieto-occipital-temporal brain regions provide a critical ability to see patterns as interrelated elements. Planning processes provide for the programming, regulation and verification of behaviour and are responsible for behaviors, such as asking questions, problem solving, and the capacity for self-monitoring.
Successive Processing is involved with the use of stimuli arranged in a specific serial order. Whenever information must be remembered or completed in a specific order successive processing will be involved. Importantly, however, the information must not be able to be organized into a pattern (like the number 9933811 organized into 99-33-8-11) but instead each element can only be related to those that precede it.
The PASS theory is an alternative to approaches to intelligence that have traditionally included verbal, nonverbal, and quantitative tests. Not only does this theory expand the view of what “abilities” should be measured, but it also puts emphasis on basic psychological processes and precludes verbal achievement like tests such as vocabulary.
Additionally, the PASS theory is an alternative to the anachronistic notion of a general intelligence. Instead, the functions of the brain are considered the building blocks of ability conceptualized within a cognitive processing framework. While the theory may have its roots in neuro-psychology, its branches are spread over developmental and educational psychology.
Thus PASS theory of cognitive processing, with its links to developmental and neuro-psychology, provides an advantage in explanatory power over the notion of general intelligence.
Salient features of pass theory:
- It tests intelligence as a set of cognitive processes.
- The PASS theory of intelligence examines what the major processes are.
- The PASS theory of intelligence guides us in the remediation of preparing troubles.
Cognition is a dynamic methodology that works inside the setting of the singular’s knowledge base, reacts to, his encounters, and is liable to developmental varieties. When we measure the Cognition processes then concerned the effective processing.
Despite the fact that these methodologies are interrelated and persevering, they are not just as included in all assignments. Therefore, cognitive evaluation errands for planning, attention, simultaneous, and successive processing were produced to hold fast to PASS theory and prevalently require a particular cognitive process.
Children in the age group of 8 to 17 years, Ability/achievement, Ability/reading and ability/ mathematics normative taxonomies for reading and mathematics were developed from the PASS theory scales of the CAS (Cognitive Assessment System). Further, eight perusing and five math bunches were recognized and depicted utilizing demographics and generally speaking capacity and accomplishment levels.