Discuss some measures for Increase Agricultural Productivity in India.
The measures to Increase Agricultural Productivity in India, is divided into Institutional Performs, Technological Improvement, and incentives based measures.
Proper implementation of land reforms and land tenure system can bring up the productivity rate of Indian agriculture. Agricultural financing, wide spread and equitable distribution of inputs for technologically suitable methods are important to improve productivity. The institutions have been set up by the government, but their effective implementation has not been done, and that is necessary.
The delivery systems of the government need improvement, which includes the overall development measures and empowerment of institutions like the Panchayati Raj. The economic and social development functions as well as the necessary resources need to be suitably distributed.
These are of two types: Biological, and others. The first type refers to the and saving methods and practices, like-seeds and fertilizers of environmentally sustainable kinds. These have the effect of improving productivity.
Along with technical information, the farmers need input supplies, extension services, credit facility, post harvest assistance like storage and marketing etc. The farmers need agro-service centers to hire implements and machinery, efficient cooperatives, as are in place in Taiwan for support. Without these, the farmers are incapable of adopting modern production techniques.
Although agriculture has been playing the most vital role in Indian economy, during the course of the study, it has been observed that not much emphasis has been given to agricultural research in India. One of the key elements is to come up with mechanisms that help to bring farmer knowledge and scientific knowledge together in such a way that it becomes accessible to a wide range of end-users and intermediary users or service providers.
Agricultural extension and technology management must be focused on various aspects like dissemination of technology, availability of seeds and planting material, and farm mechanization.
Scientists have reiterated the need to develop farming tools, in collaboration with agricultural research universities and farmers organizations, in order to increase production. Close linkage with agricultural universities, farmers associations and self help groups is required to promote quality planting material with high-tech horticulture.
Pooling of small farmlands, land management, agro-forestry, private research, dry land farming, etc., is the need of the hour. Institutional development is needed to tackle the problem of poor and marginal farmers and state has to take on the role of regulator and equity concerns of the society.
In the context of agriculture, the potential of information technology (IT) can be assessed broadly under two heads:
- As a tool for direct contribution to agricultural productivity and
- As an indirect tool for empowering farmers to take informed and quality decisions which will have positive impact on the way agriculture and allied activities are conducted.
Precision farming, popular in developed countries, extensively uses IT to make direct contribution to agricultural productivity. The techniques of remote sensing using satellite technologies, geographical information systems, agronomy and soil sciences, expansion of e-choupals are used to increase the agricultural output. The Indian farmer urgently requires timely and reliable sources of information inputs for taking decisions.
Incentives for Raising Productivity.
Improving Small Farm Productivity: As stated above there is predominance of small farm holders in Indian agriculture, as their share in total holdings is 85%. The average size of land holdings is very small (less than 2 hectares) and is subject to fragmentation due to land ceiling acts, and in some cases, family disputes.
Small scale farming is often used interchangeably with small holders-family-subsistence resource poor-low income-low input or low technology farming. It is important to improve the productivity of small farms, and increase the marketable surplus of the farmer, to fulfill their need for cash.
The farms must be accessible to modern inputs like fertilizers, pesticides and improved seeds at reasonable prices. Other measures aPut in place crop insurance in order to stabilize returns from agriculture.
The scale of production can be improved by pooling of land and applying modern inputs and methods to raise productivity. Land banks are useful in this case to overcome small farmer’s problems. Contract farming is a useful method to increase the access of farmers to inputs and technology.
The corporate sector can play a major role in supplying quality raw materials. Reforms are necessary in the fertilizer industry which has become inefficient due to government protection to promote the expansion of this industry.