Administrative Structure of India.
Indian Administrative Structure.
In public administration, the Chief Executive performs various legislative, executive and judicial functions in various areas. The Chief Executive in public organization performs the efforts of the personnel to achieve organizational goals. Among administrative functions, the Chief Executive is involved in the formulation of administrative policy, deciding on the details of the organization appointment and removal of personnel; issuing directions, proclamation, orders performs, management of finance, coordination of various activities supervision, control and investigation of the administrative operations public relations and maintenance of proper system of communication.
The Chief Executive provides leadership in an organization To perform all these political and administrative functions, the Chief Executive delegates some of his powers to the line and staff agencies, attached to his office. The agencies, which directly carry out the functions to achieve the goal of an organization are called line agencies. While, the agencies that help advice and assist the line agencies in carrying out their work are called staff agencies.
The Chief Executive:
The Chief Executive is the head of administration at the respective national, state, district and local levels. The Chief Executive could be of different types namely singular, plural or collegiate. In India at the Union level, President is the Constitutional Chief Executive, while the Prime Minister as the Head of the Cabinet is the ‘real’ Chief Executive. At the state level, the Governor is the Constitutional Chief Executive and the Chief Minister is the real Chief Executive. At the district level, the District Collector is the Chief Executive, who is the most important functionary in the district administration.
The Union Level:
The Constitution of India conforms Deliberations that the executive power of the Union shall be vested, in the President. The executive power has been classified under administrative, legislative, judicial and military. Despite these powers, the President is only a nominal executive, as he has to exercise his functions with the aid and advice of Council of Ministers headed by Prime Minister. Thus, the Prime Minister and his Cabinet is the real Chief Executive.
The President has discretionary powers, such as ordinance making and pardoning powers. In addition, he has special powers relating to ‘Union Territories’: He has the power to give instructions to the state, Governors and to appoint certain Commissions for specific matters. Thus he is not totally deprived of real powers.
Still, it is the fact that the Prime–Minister is the linchpin of the executive sheet. As the Chief Executive, he presides over the meetings of the Cabinet, prepares the agenda and guides its Deliberations allocates portfolios among the ministers; and communicates to the President about the happenings in and outside the country. The Prime Minister is the chief spokesperson of the Cabinet in Parliament.
He is the chief coordinator of Ministries and Departments and makes the major appointments in the name of the President. He represents the country at international forums. In work, he is assisted by’ the Council of Ministers. Moreover; the Cabinet Committees, the Cabinet Secretariat and Prime Minister’s Office provide staff support to ‘the Chief Executive.
The work of administration is run by the Secretariat. It helps in policy making, framing rules, exercising financial control; and guiding and directing the executive agencies in their tasks. Thus; both staff and line agencies help the Chief Executive.
The State Level:
The Constitution of India provides for a. federal government having separate systems of administration for the Union’ and its states. The Governor is a Constitutional ruler. In practice, he has to act according to the advice of the Council of Ministers responsible to the state legislature. He has powers relating to the appointment of judges and members of the State Public Service Commission; addressing, summoning, proroguing, dissolving the state legislature and granting pardons, remissions , etc.
He performs with the advice of the, Council of Ministers headed by the Chief Minister. He also functions under the direction of the President of India. Thus, the Chief Minister the Council of Ministers is the real Chief Executive while the Governor is the nominal Chief Executive.
The Chief Minister is the political head of the state level and the Chief Secretary heads the administration, He is the kingpin of the State Secretariat and head of the civil services in the State. The Chief Secretary works, as the principal adviser to the Chief Minister, prepares the agenda for the Cabinet meetings, arranges meetings, maintains records of proceedings etc., exercises general superintendence and control over the Secretariat; and gives orders on postings, transfers, etc. of the government personnel. Thus, he acts as a staff agency to the Chief Minister.
The District level:
The tole of Chief Executive is very important at the district level. As a basic unit of administration, district is placed under the charge of a District Collector. Thus, District Collector is the chief executive. He is the kingpin of administration, and all the administrative powers are vested in him.
The major functions of the Collector are to maintain law and order check proper implementation of social welfare and development programs make necessary arrangements to complete the election process supervise over the local bodies assume charge under unforeseen situations and utilize the district machinery to meet the situation secure coordination at the district level in the working of various State Government Departments and exercise control verified offices through inspections and meetings with his subordinates