Discuss the Competency approach to job analysis.
The competency based job analysis includes the following:
Identify the key competencies: (knowledge, skills, abilities, and behaviors) required to successfully perform the Most important (three or four is recommended) work activities. The relationship between the work activities and the competencies should be reasonable and clearly documented. Describe the competencies in a way that they may be used to assess candidates in the selection process and/or during a layoff This information may also be key in defending human resource decisions in the event of a challenge.
Examples of competencies:
- Knowledge of basic principles and procedures.
- Ability to read, understand, and follow written directions.
- Skill in operating a forklift.
- Facilitation skills ability to focus and direct group discussions.
- Decision-making skills ability to weigh options and foresee consequences of decisions.
Identify job readiness factors: as they relate to the context of the job. This includes:
- Mental and physical demands (e.g. frequently working under extreme stress, working at heights).
- Willingness issues (e.g. working with mentally ill patients/clients, working in a prison).
- Environmental factors (e.g. working outdoors regardless of weather, working in a smoke-free facility).
Job readiness factors may be highlighted on recruitment announcements, used as screens, and/or worked into the assessment process. The point at which job readiness factors are used to screen candidates in or out is important to consider. A factor that is a basic requirement of a position and has no room for reasonable accommodation or negotiation (e.g. working in a prison) is something that may be used to screen candidates up front.
Factors that do have room for reasonable accommodation or negotiation (certain physical demands), or are items related to “best fit” in a position are better included in the assessment process and/or mentioned on a recruitment announcement. Where job readiness factors are used should be logical and defensible in the event of a challenge. For the purpose of job analysis, it is good to document these factors for possible use in selection, as well as to note pertinent working conditions of the position.
Associate the competencies with qualifications and select the proficiency level needed: Qualifications are typically items that could be found on a resume or application, and that allow candidates to self-select their proficiency levels. Qualifications should indicate specific experiences, accomplishments, and/or credentials that are likely to reflect proficiency in the competencies identified. There may be several competencies associated with the same qualification, and vice versa. Qualifications may be selected from those available in the e-Recruit catalog and/or developed by organizations. Those developed by organizations maybe used in questionnaires to obtain position-specific information from candidates.
Associate the competencies with performance statements and select the proficiency level needed: Performance statements are typically behaviors observed and evaluated by someone other than the candidate. These statements should indicate measurable and observable outcomes or products of a competency. Core competencies (competencies required by all employees in an organization) should be listed in this portion of the job analysis.