Discuss the contribution of taylor towards the scientific management.
The Scientific Management was formulated during the period when the Industrial. Revolution had reached a stage of maturity. The rapid expansion of industry and business were giving rise to new problem of industrial planning and management. The working conditions of the factories were neither good nor the work methods, tools and procedures were standardized for efficiency.
Choice of methods of work was mainly Left to the workers themselves, as a result there is adhoc planning and inefficiency in the factories. In this situation, Taylor came out with his ideas on scientific management. Although the term “Scientific Management” is coined by Locis D. Brandies, the philosophy as such owes it is origin to F.W. Taylor. Taylor has defined Scientific Management or “the art of knowing exactly what you want to do and then seeing that they do it in the best and cheapest way.”
The term Scientific Management means the application of science to the management of a business concern. It aims at use of scientific method in the work processes and management of the organisation to promote efficiency and economy of the organisation.
For this purpose he invented a cutting tool, a method of heat-treating tool steel, a steel hammer, hydraulic power loading machine and turning mills. After his retirement, he devoted his time for research in improving upon the techniques of Scientific Management. Taylor’s contribution to Scientific Management was recorded in his papers.
They piece rate system, shop Management, the art of cutting metals, the principles of scientific management. In these papers, he deal with the need of low production unit costs and payment of high wages. He also focused on the application of scientific methods of research and management, standardization of working conditions in the organisation and also the need for cooperative relations between workers and management.
Contribution of Taylor Towards the Scientific Management are:
It is a change in the attitude of the worker and management regarding their duties and responsibility In the field of administration, workers has the total responsibility of the work and the management has lesser responsibility.
Thus, Taylor suggested for the equal division of work and responsibility between them and provide opportunity for higher production, Once production increases there is ample scope for increasing the wages of the workers as well as the budget of the management.
Functional Foreman ship.
In the industry, Taylor suggested for functional foreman ship, where workers receive orders from eight different specialized supervisors. Taylor’s rejected military style of management, where the workers received orders from one man, the foreman.
He believed. that the greatest efficiency could be achieved only by diving work into its component parts and training men to a very high performance level. Under this system every worker would have eight supervisors, they get orders in his functional specialty. Out of these eight supervisors four are functional, foreman namely the gang boss, the repair boss, speed boss and the inspector.
They look after the execution of work and other four supervisors will take care of planning aspects. They are the route clerk institution clerk, the time and cost clerk and the shop disciplinarian. Aim of this principle is to provide a. specialized supervision for each type of work.
Division of Work.
Another important contribution of Taylor in the field of scientific management was the division of work between management and worker. He believe that a distinct personality is required for performing planning function and doing function. The planning function is performed by the management and the doing function is performed by the workers.
Task prescription means clear description of the task performed by the workers. Division of task method,of achieving such tasks is not so important. The worker first know what he should do. Taylor emphasis that the task should be well planned by the management and the worker should get. proper instruction about the work done by them.
Selection and Training of Workers.
According to Taylor workers should be selected and trained for better performance of the work in the organisation. It is the duty of the management to choose the candidates on the basis of their ability work in the organisation. It also provide formal training and clear instruction to the workers to perform the prescribed motions with the standardized tools and materials.
Work as an Individual Activity.
Taylor gave more emphasis on individual activity rather than the group activity. Because in the group activity, individual looses his individuality or individual drive.
Taylor suggested that the payment should be linked to the piece of work done by the worker. If the worker have achieving a greater output, then a bonus payment will be given to the workers. This,system encouraged the workers to produce more.
Work Study and Work Measurement.
Taylor advocated for the scientific and systematic study of work and work should be measured to find out best way of performing the task. With the help of a stop-watch, Taylor studies each ‘and every movement of the worker while performing the task. Through this system he tries to eliminate the unnecessary movement of the workers and find out the exact time required for a task to perform.
Standardization of Tools.
To increase the rate of production, Taylor suggests for the use of standardized tools, equipment’s and methods. He advocated for development of a scientific method for each task which would replace adhocism and selection of work procedure. This could be achieved by scientifically investigating the working conditions and the total quantum of work to be undertaken in any enterprise in a given period and then fixing daily task assignments so that the workers may work in a planned way.
Taylor was against the Trade Unions. To him Trade Union was unnecessary as the management itself laid down what was the “fair day’s pay for fair day’s work.’
Development of Management Thinking.
Another important contribution of Taylor was the development of management thinking. It means specific laws could be derived from management practice and those laws relate specifically to wage rates and way of doing work.
Taylor’s scientific management provide benefit not only to the workers but also to the industry. By using standardized tools, equipment’s and methods, industries increased their rate of production. They improve quality control and inspections and reduces cost of production by using cost control techniques.
Scientific Management also estimates wastage of men, materials, time and methods of manufacturing. It place “right man in right job” by proper selection and training, and ensures higher wages to the workers for standardized goods to the consumers.
Taylor’s Scientific Management would help in reducing cost and increase profit through expansion of market. It also helps in reduction of tension between management and workers through increased share of profits and higher salaries and wages.