Discuss the different types of Social Problems.
Social problems are divided into two types at the individual level and at the collective level. Problems at the individual level are juvenile delinquency, drug addiction, suicide etc. Problems at collective level arise when the instruments of social control flop to normalize the conduct of its members. For example, poverty, exploitation, population explosion, etc. Let us discuss more about the social problems now:
Social Problems Due to Social Factors:
The nature of heterogeneous societies is one of the main reasons for causing social problems, Like in India people are of numerous religions, castes, linguistic groups and tribal groups etc. and the social problems are seen here. The conflict among different religious has given rise to communalism, Hindu-Muslim conflict has been a major problem.
There are conflicts between Hindus, Muslims, Sikhs, Christians, etc. Caste system has alienated the society in various groups and this has caused discrimination among the groups. The problem of untouchability in India is due to the caste system. In the traditional system, education was considered to be the prerogative of the upper castes. As a result, the masses were deprived of education.
Social Problems Due to Cultural Factors:
The cultural factors are also responsible for a variety of social problems. In older times cultural factors which have caused social problems are:
- Male Child Preference,
- Patriarchal System,
- Lack of regard for Public Property.
In India, a son in the family is considered essential. It is even desired to have more sons. Therefore, the members of family keep on adding. This has led to population explosion. The population of India has grown at a high speed after independence. At present, India is the second most populated country of the world.
Indian society is patriarchal where woman is lain open to man. They are only seen as a wife or a mother. The women are considered as inferior to men in every walk of life. As a result, almost half of the population has remained deprived. This dispossession compounds when woman belongs to the Scheduled Caste or the Scheduled Tribe.Yet another characteristic of Indian society is corruption and the disregard for public property. This lack of reverence for public property is the core cause of corruption, black money, etc.
Social Problems Due to Economic Factors
Economic factors are also liable for various social problems. It is noticeable in countries like India. Inadequate dissemination of wealth has led to inequality and therefore the problem of poverty arises. Poverty in turn worsens the situation and leads to other problems like high crime, slum, illiteracy, etc.
The process of urbanization in India is very slow. This has give rise to regional disparity in economic development. The pockets of development of high level of urban growth can be seen only in some parts of the country and the rest of the regions are still under developed. The grown parts of the country attract a large number of people towards it and thus causing more inequality in the country. In addition to it, the areas getting the immigrants are facing the problems of slum, congestion, unemployment, pollution, etc.
Social Problems Due to Political and Legal Factors
Some political factors also cause social problems which include electoral politics, political, functioning, corruption, etc. To win elections and have a hold or power, political parties use communal modes of deployment like caste, religion, and language. Some of the decisions taken by the reigning party lead to social problem. This results in conflicts between different stratus of the society. Another problem is the increasing political corruption.
Social Problems Due to Ecological Factors
To develop rapidly, environment was ignored. The environmental consequences of these attempts are now standing tall as a major social problem. Rapid industrialization has led to increase in environmental pollution (air, water, noise and degradation of land). This in turn has led to emergence of new types of diseases, global warming, ozone depletion, floods etc. which is now threatening the existence of mankind. Further, to feed the increasing population of the world more and more land is used for cultivation and this has also disturbed the ecological balance. Application of modern technological in agriculture like the pesticides, insecticides, etc is threatening the biodiversity of the world.