Important Features of the Indian Federal system
In India each state has its own government a legislature, executive and judiciary. At the central level there is a government Called Union government. The governments at the Center as well as in the States are elected by the people separately. The Union and the States derive their existence, and powers from the Constitution. The constitution is supreme and is binding on both the Union and the States can be amended only with the consent of the Parliament and a majority of the State legislatures. The rest of the constitution can be amended by the Parliament itself. The constitution of India divides the subjects between the Union and the States. There are three list of Subjects included in the Constitution.
The Union list includes 97 subjects on which the Union government has exclusive jurisdiction. The State list has 66 subjects which the State alone can make laws on and administer In addition to these there is concurrent list with 47 subjects. These are common to both the Union and the States and they can make, laws on them concurrently. The Constitution makes adequate provision to ensure independence and impartiality of the judiciary. The Supreme Court decides disputes between the Union and the States.
The Indian Constitution provides for All India Services the Indian Administrative Service, (IAS) the Indian Police Service and Indian Forest Service. Members of these services are recruited by the Union Public Service Commission on an all India basis. This provision was possibly made to maintain the administrative tradition and id unity of India Civil Service which was described as the steel frame of the India administration during the British rule.
A second feature is the Emergency provisions in the Indian Constitution. Firstly, the President of India, on the advice of the Union Council of Ministers, can declare. an Emergency if there is a danger or threat of it to the security of India from a war or armed rebellion. An Emergency also can be declared if the financial , stability of the country is endangered. Thus federation is the best system of government for trying out political social and economic experiments.