Discuss the main features of urbanization in Harappan civilization.
The Harappan culture was distinguished by its system of town planning. Harappa and Mohenjodaro each had its own citadel or acropolis, which was possibly occupied by members of the ruling class. Below the citadel in each city lay a lower town containing brick houses, which were inhabited by the common people.
The remarkable thing about the arrangements of the houses in the cities is that they followed the grid system. Big buildings distinguished both Harappan and Mohenjodaro the latter was extremely rich in structures. Their monuments symbolized the ability of the ruling class to mobilize labor and collect taxes; the huge brick constructions also impressed the common people with the prestige and influence of their rulers. The most important public place of Mohenjodaro seems to be the Great Bath, comprising the tank which is situated in the citadel mound. In Mohenjodaro the largest building is a granary.
Approximately it had the same area as the Great Granary at Mohenjodaro. at Kalibangan also we notice in the southern part brick platforms, which may have been used for granaries. Thus, it would appear that granaries constituted and important part of the Harappan cities. The use of burnt bricks in the Harappan cities is remarkable, because in the contemporary buildings of Egypt dried bricks were mainly used.
The drainage system of Mohenjodaro was very impressive. In almost all cities every big or small house had its own courtyard and bathroom. The street drains were equipped with manholes.The drainage system of Harappa is almost unique. Perhaps no other Bronze Age civilization gave so much attention to health and cleanliness as the Harappan did.