Discuss the Models of Social Group Work.
List of different models of social work which were proposed by social workers.
Remedial groups are highly leader-directed with the therapist actively intervening in and managing group processes. Vinter (1974) describes multiple roles for the remedial group leader, including: functioning as the object of member identification and drives, acting as the agent of group legitimate norms and values defining individual tasks and goals, and controlling members roles in the group.
Reciprocal Model or Mediating Model:
The Reciprocal Model describes creative work (and, arguably, all work) as a cyclical four-step process. The model is useful as a descriptive and prescriptive tool for leaders who want to direct individual, group, organizational, or community efforts in a more creative direction.
Aspects of it have been taught in the Pacific Northwest at workshops for project managers, sustainability coordinators, and organizational development professionals. In sociology and social work, the reciprocal model is an ecological perspective of groups in which the central thesis is that groups are not only affected by the surrounding environment but they also affect it with the surrounding environment consisting not only of “things” external to the group but also of people, most of whom are composed in group collectives, themselves, e:g., families, organizations, companies, unions, congregations, clubs, agencies, institutions, and so forth (Jason, 1992).
However, the primary historical antecedent of social ecological, reciprocal theory is not social or behavioural, it is biological.
The developmental models reflect different types, structures and composition of group therapy approaches. When implementing an outpatient group, the leader establishes certain parameters, including whether the group will be open or closed, time-limited or open-ended, as well as session frequency and duration. Each of these variables influences group development.
For example, open groups which continually add and lose new members on an on-going basis, such as a community based support group, may not develop through certain stages in the same way as a closed, insight-oriented, interpersonal group. That is, certain stages may be truncated or simply not emerge. In similar fashion, an open-ended group with a fixed membership will be more likely to manifest cyclical patterns of development than a time-limited, fixed membership group.
There is also evidence that groups of different compositions, for example, homogeneous and heterogeneous with regard to member gender, may vary in terms of the duration’s of each developmental stage.
The Social Goal Model:
The goals model has roots in the settlement house tradition and in the social movements of the 1960. The central goals of this model are social change and the empowerment of oppressed populations. The role of the worker in this model is less directive (though no less active) than in the other two models.
This is consistent with the emphasis on empowerment, which has been defined as “having the choice to participate in the decisions that affect one’s life, and the life of one’s society and community. The role of social action group workers includes facilitating opportunities for the empowerment of group members, assisting group members with the process of determining social action goals and strategies, and challenging internal and external forms of oppression. In this three more suitable models cover up.
Gestalt Therapy: The worker helps the client how they can prevent themselves from preventing from maturing. The main aim of the worker is to become aware of the responsibilities of how to feel better.
Structural Analysis: This method analysis the thoughts and feelings and the ego based behaviour.
Transnational Analysis: It includes the process which occurs between two persons ego.
Game Analysis: It encounters the respective patterns of interpersonal behaviour of individual that are problematic.
Script Analysis: This examines the decisions and positions taken by person in childhood.
The specific programs are implemented to dysfunction new styles and patterns. Expertise of behavior group therapy is essential in assessing and devising treatment plan for each individual member within the context of group. Group worker calculates specific elements of disturbing behavior are to be decreased and desired behavior has to be increased. Group members give assistance and feedback throughout the stages of treatment process.