Discuss the Principles and Techniques of Total Quality Management.
Total Quality Management (TQM) can be defined as the management of initiatives and procedures that are aimed at achieving the delivery of quality products and services. A number of key principles can be identified in defining TQM, including:
- Executive Management: Top management should act as the main driver for Total Quality Management (TQM) and create an environment that ensures its success.
- Training: Employees should receive regular training on the methods and concepts of quality.
- Customer Focus: Improvements in quality should improve customer satisfaction.
- Decision Making: Quality decisions should be made based on measurements.
- Methodology and Tools: Use of appropriate methodology and tools ensures that non-conformance’s are identified, measured and responded to consistently.
- Continuous Improvement: Companies should continuously work towards improving manufacturing and quality procedures.
- Company Culture: The culture of the company should aim at developing employees ability to work together to improve quality.
- Employee Involvement: Employees should be encouraged to be proactive in identifying and addressing quality related problems.
A core concept in implementing Total Quality Management (TQM) is Deming’s 14 points, a set of management practices to help companies increase their quality and productivity:
- Create constancy of purpose for improving products and services.
- Adopt, the new philosophy.
- Cease dependence. on inspection to achieve quality.
- End the practice of awarding business on price alone, instead, minimize total cost by working with a single supplier.
- Improve constantly and forever every process for planning, production and service.
- Institute training on the job.
- Adopt and institute leadership.
- Drive out fear.
- Break-down barriers between staff areas.
- Eliminate slogans, exhortations and targets for the workforce.
- Eliminate numerical quotas for the workforce and numerical goals for management.
- Remove barriers that rob people of pride of workmanship, and eliminate the annual rating or merit system.
- Institute a vigorous programme of education and self-improvement for everyone.
- Put everybody in the company to work accomplishing the transformation.