Discuss the role of International Organizations in Solving Global Problems and Their Instruments.

The International Organization (U.N.O) has become very important in this age of globalization. Aim of U.N.O. is to maintain peace, so it had to face lot of problems. The U.N.O. in 1965 declared inadmissibility of intervention in domestic affairs of states to protect their sovereignty and status. In 1974 defined aggression and in 1977 international detente. In 1984, prevention of nuclear catastrophe.

In 1982 emphasized on peaceful settlement of disputes. 1986 was declared the International Year of Peace. In 1987, emphasized for refraining from the threat or use of force in international relations and third Tuesday of September each year the International Day of Peace.

Here it may be stated that during this period and even after this Iran-Iraq war, conflicts in African states and tensions between P.L.O. and Israel remained continuous. U.N.O. has to send on ten occasions peace keeping forces and ten military observer missions and military observer groups in India and Pakistan. U.N.O. has placed emphasis on peace-keeping and cooperation among former enemies. Thus, U.N.O. has done excellent work for managing international peace and security.

INITIATIVES FOR GLOBAL DISARMAMENT.

To be brief it may be stated that U.N.O. has constantly worked for global disarmament and has developed many devices for maintaining international peace and security. These are:

  • Preventive diplomacy for keeping peace and peace-making.
  • Peace-keeping.
  • Sanctions.
  • Peace enforcement.
  • The collective security mechanism.
  • Disarmament.

But in resolving international disputes success depends on the measure of support, which U.N.O. may secure from great powers. Indo-Pak war of 1965 was resolved due to intervention of U.S.S.R. and Secretary General U Thant, but Indo-Pakistan war of 1971not be resolved and ended in independence of Bangladesh.

Arab-Israel conflict has been resolved due to intervention of U.S.A. U.N.O. resolved Cambodian conflict in-spite of intervention of China and Vietnam’s intervention and forced Iraq to free Kuwait. U.N.O. forced Britain, France and Israel to withdraw forces from Egypt in Suez Canal war of 1956. As such U.N.O. has done excellent work and try efforts continuously succeeded in maintaining peace and security of states.

U.N.Q. becomes helpless in case of superpower’s. As such U.N.O. could do nothing to check U.S.A. aggression over Vietnam and U.S.S.R.’s aggression over Afghanistan and recent attack on Iraq by Anglo-American forces in case of Iraq and Afghanistan. Thus U.N.O. has to depend on cooperation of major powers to preserve peace and security of states.

STEP TOWARDS ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT.

In League of Nations, there was no Economic and Social Council but in U.N.O. there is Economic and Social Council containing 54 members elected by General Assembly of U.N.O. for international economic social, cultural, educational, health and related matters. As such through this Council U.N.O. has done excellent work in economic and social sphere. To minimize disparity of income and development, U.N.O. emphasized for New Economic Order (N.E.O.).

REGIONAL COMMISSIONS OF ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COUNCIL OF U.N.O.

Economic and Social Council has established Commission for Asia and far East (E.S.C.A.P), for Africa (E.C.A.), for Western Asia (E.C.W.A.) and for South Asia (E. C.S. A.) to provide research and planning facilities to stimulate self help and for tackling regional problems.

ROLE OF INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS.

World Bank and I.M.F. has done a lot to improve the economic condition of poor and undeveloped and underdeveloped countries. But advantages lies to those who utilize aid and loan properly and mostly on capacity of state to develop herself. As such Asian countries, China and India etc. have become rich, developed countries but African and Latin American countries legged behind. Critics say World Bank and I.M.F. curtail state’s sovereignty in economic sphere and imposed its will and is advantageous to developed rich countries who control it.

OTHER IMPORTANT AREA OF RESPONSIBILITY FOR INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTIONS.

U.N.O. has aided Palestinian refugees who ultimately succeeded in getting Palestine state. It has provided humanitarian aid to victims of conflict. International Fund for Agricultural Development (I.F.A.D.) provides help to about 250 million people of poorest countries.

African countries are among poorest countries of the world, so Africa Project Development Facility (A.P.D.F) has provided help to entrepreneur of 25 countries and created more than 13000 jobs. It has done excellent work in promoting women’s rights all over the world and has created the U.N. Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM) and International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of Women (INSTRAW) for women’s training and development.

It has pressed for universal immunization for polio, tetanus, cough, diptheria and tuberculosis etc. UNICEF and World Health Organization (WHO) etc. are doing excellent work in this direction. It has done excellent work in promoting investment in developing countries, reducing effects of disaster; protecting ozone layer, curbing global warming, checking pollution and in controlling drug abuse.

It has improved global trade relations, improved agricultural techniques with reduced cost and upkeep of oceans. It has also worked for protecting intellectual property, safeguarding children and for improving global communication.

UN Secretary General Kofi Annan on 27.6.2005 on Monday pressed world leaders to adopt his agenda to overhaul the United Nations and in this September 2005, as officials marked the 60th anniversary of the world body’s creation. Kofi. Annan told the U.N.O. General Assembly that the United Nations had seen many successes, such as helping to eradicate small pox and polio etc. nearly everywhere in the world, as well as failures including the 1994 genocide in Rwanda that saw about 800,000 Tutsis.and moderate Hutus slaughtered in African state of Rwanda.

He further said, “Never in the history of the United Nations have bold decisions been more necessary.” Member nations have hotly debated Kofi Annan’s plan which includes proposals to create a. more powerful Human Rights Council, change the makeup of the Security Council and increase funding for development. Since he unveiled it in March, 2005.

The Secretary general in turn has used most of his speeches recently to push for their approval. Delegates front dozens of nation held a two day commemoration of the June 26, 1945, founding of the United Nations, (U.N.O.) in San Francisco (U.S.A.) over the weekend. Monday’s event was a brief follow up ceremony at UNO headquarters.

General Assembly President Jean Ping reminded delegates that they still had much work to do to fulfill the charter of United Nations. Jean Ping said, “Today we must recognize that the voices of millions of people in the world suffering from war, terrorism, poverty or hunger is stronger than ever.” Thus, we see U.N.O. is constantly making efforts for peke and to wipe out war, terrorism, poverty and diseases.

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