Example the General Principles of Administration as enunciated by Gulick and Urwick.
Luther Gullick was identified the ten General Principles of Administration. They are:
Span of Control: It means no superior can supervise the work of more than five or six subordinates whose work interlock
Unity of Command: It is suggested that an employee should receive offers from one superior only.
Division of Work or Specialization: It means, in the organization work will be divided among the employees to produce more and better work with the same effort.
Decentralization: Decentralization means transfer of administrative authority from the center to local agencies who function autonomously in the field.
Delegation: Delegation implies devolution of authority by a person to his agent or subordinate of his right of supervision and control. It is a distribution of power of function and not authority and responsibility.
Line and Staff: Line units are those that perform the main work of the organization and the staff units are to help and aid performance of line functions. Staff units are provided specialized services.
Co-ordination through Hierarchy: Gullick suggested co-ordination through hierarchy because, such type of co-ordination establishes interrelation between one worker and another, between one branch and another one.
Coordination through Committees: In the principles of organization through committees for the better performance of the work or for the effective co-operation among the employees.
Deliberate Co-operation: It means co-operation through well consideration.
Bases of Departmental Organization: It means that there are different basis on which a department is organized. These bases are purpose, process, person and place. To these four bases J.C. Charles worth has added another four bases which are as follows:
- Segmental replacement
- Adventitious circumstances.
Urwick was identified the eight General Principles of Administration. They are:
The Scalar Principle: It means each employee is subordinate to the next higher one.
The Principle of Coordination: It means effective co-operation among employees.
The Principle of Objectives: Organization should be an expression of a purpose.
Principle of Span of Control: It means a superior can not supervise directly the work of more than five or six subordinates whose work interlocks.
The Principle of Correspondence: Here authority and responsibility must be co-equal.
Principle of Specialization: It limiting one’s work to a single function.
The Principle of Responsibility: The responsibility of the superiors for the work if the subordinate is absolute.
The Principle of Definition: It is a clear prescription of every duty.
Now we define or elaborate a few of the principles given by Gullick and Urwick:
Principle of Span of Control: Span of control is the extent of effective supervision. The span of control principle implies that superior cannot supervise directly the work of more than five or six subordinates whose work interlock. It depends on the frequency and depth of communication and contacts between the superior and subordinate officials.
The Principle of Unity of Command: It means each employee receives orders from one superior only. Orders from several superiors will result in confusion, inefficiency and irresponsibility.
The Principle of Responsibility: The responsibility of the superior for the work of the subordinate is absolute.
Principle of Objective: The organization should be an expression of purpose.
Scalar Principle: Generally scalar principle means flow of authority and responsibility from the top to the bottom. According to Mooney, scale means a series of steps. something graded. In organization it means the grading of duties, not according to degree of-authority and corresponding responsibility. The term hierarchy refers to a graded organization of several successive steps or levels, in which each of the lower level is immediately subordinate to the next higher one and through it to the higher level and so on, right up to the top.
Principle of Co-ordination: Co-ordination is the first principle of organization according to Mooney. It means effecting co-operation and team work among the employees in an organization. It is also integration of several parts into an orderly whole to achieve the purpose of the organization.
Principle of Correspondence: Authority and responsibility must be co-equal. Responsibility is a corollary of authority. According to Henri Fayol responsibility is the natural consequence of authority. Those who wield authority also carry responsibility for the outcome of their decision.
Division of Work or Specialization: The objective of the division of work is to produce more and better work with the same effort. OAR& claims that work division is the foundation of organization. Without specialization there would be little need for administrators.
The Line and Staff Principle: The term line refers to authority for execution and command and the term staff is to advice and aid the line for the performance of their function. Line preform the main work of the organization and the staff provide advice and support to the line.