There are various factors which being about social change:
Social life is influenced by physical environment of the place. Physical environment means forests, deserts, mountains, and whatever good nature has provided human beings with. Changes in physical environment are inevitable. Natural phenomena like earthquake, volcanic eruptions and human activities like deforestation, misuse of natural resources, pollution brings about drastic changes the physical environment.
Change in physical environment leads to social changes in negative as well as positive sense. History reveals that unfavorable physical environment have led to fall of world’s greatest civilization. Harsh climatic conditions limit the growth’ of social life. For example, north and south polar regions and deserts. Similarly, favorable physical environment promotes social growth. Northern plains of India are a classic example of it.
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Social and economic growth of any society in interlinked with each other. From the prehistoric man to the man of modern societies has gone through various economic phases of development which has directly affected the social growth.
From a hunter and gatherer, man has now become a member of advanced industrial society with scientific and technological development resulting in change in social life. Economic change is directly proportional to social change. Development in economy will affect change in society in terms of educational, technological, scientific advancement.
Demographic Factors of Social Change:
Demographic factors mean study of population. Change in population of a place determines the social, political and cultural change in a society. It has been seen that advanced countries have less population than the developing countries. Developed counties with high economic growth have high standards of living.
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Developing countries with high population have to face problems like high birth rate, low health standards, unemployment, violence and crime etc due to low economic growth.In nutshell change in the demography affects the society in terms of social change, economic change, education, values, culture and politics etc.
Technological factors resulting in economic growth have shrunk the world. Technological development has affected human being and brought about change in all spheres of social life.
Nuclear families, revolutionary, transformation in the role of women in modern societies, change in human relationships, reduced interference of religion in social life of people etc. All these factors have drastically changed the social institutions of social life. Technological development has also led to cultural lag in societies.
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All the above factors induce social change. Development in these factors leads to social change. There is no single factor is can be marked as more important than other. AU the factors affecting social change are interlinked and development of change in one will also affect the other.