Explain the diverse types observation methods.

There are six types of diverse type observation methods which are as follows:

Participant Observation:

In this observation, the observer is a part of the phenomenon or group which observed and he acts as both an observer and a participant. For example, a study of tribal customs by an anthropologist by taking part in tribal activities like folk dance. The person who is observed should not be aware of the researcher’s purpose. Then only their behavior will be natural.

Non-participant Observation:

In this method, the observer stands apart and does not participate in the phenomenon observed. Naturally, there is no emotional involvement on the part of the observer. This method calls for skill in recording observations in an unnoticed manner. For example, use of recording devices to examine the details of how people talk and behave together.

Direct Observation:

This means observation of an event personally by the observer when it takes place. This method is flexible and allows the observer to see and record subtle aspects of events and behaviour as they occur. He is also free to shift places, change the focus of the observation. For example: Observer is physically present to monitor

Indirect Observation:

This does not involve the physical presence of the observer, and the recording is done by mechanical, photographic or electronic devices. For example: Recording customer and employee movements by a special motion picture camera mounted in a department of large store.

Controlled Observation:

Controlled observation is carried out either in the laboratory or in the field. It is typified by clear and explicit decisions on what, how, and when to observe. It is primarily used for inferring causality, and testing casual hypothesis.

Uncontrolled Observation:

This does not involve over extrinsic and intrinsic variables. It is primarily used for descriptive research. Participant observation is a typical uncontrolled one.

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