Explain the types of soil.
Their are two major type of soil:
They are a result of weathering of parent rock. They are also called as sedentary soil. The higher or top layers of the soil are maximum weathered where as the degree of weathering decreases with the increase in depth of the soil.
When the weathering material is transported and deposited at different place from Its origin, it is called transported soil. Depending upon the transporting agent they are further classified as:
Colluvial Soil: The materials are transported from the pull of gravity. This soil particles are very coarse, consisting mostly of bigger pieces of rock and has a rough texture.
Alluvial Soil: The particles of this type are found in river basins, flood plains, deltas, etc. The texture of each particle is rounded and smooth and the separate layers are usually distinct. Among the alluvial soil in India, indo-gangetic plains are highly productive and have been cultivated for thousands of years.
Glacial Soil: These soil particles are formed by grinding of snow and ice. Moving ice pieces carry large unconsolidated materials. The sharp corners of the rocks are ground smooth by the movement friction. This type of soil is found in Dehradun and parts of Kashmir.
Aeolian Soil: The materials which are transported by wind come under the category of aeolian soil. They are still divided into Dunes or loess such soil are found in Rajasthan, south west Punjab, and parts of Gujarat. Sometimes these are derived from volcanic ash also. The amazing fact about the particles of Dunes are is that all the particles have uniform shape and size. The fine particles are blown off very frequently while the heavier ones settle down.