The Two Step Flow Theory.
Paul Lazarsfeld gave the Two-step Flow Theory of mass media under the scientific perspective. This is an example of the limited effects theory. Although we are discussing it under the realm of the scientific perspective.
Lazarsfeld conduct research in 1940, and the focus area of his research was the presidential poll of the USA. He finally concluded that the media’s influence on the voting behavior of people was limited by opinion leaders.
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Such people initially imbibe media content. Then, they interpret it in the context of their beliefs, values, and mental make-up.
Finally, they pass it on to other people, who are called Opinion Followers. These opinion followers are similar to opinion leaders but are in less frequent contact with the media.
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This theory was altered because of the advent of TV. The media were able to reach one and all after the advent of TV transmissions. However,. some opinion leaders still exist. They are not the key figures for disseminating information because, in any case, their followers can have direct access to information.