Explain Wilbert Moore’s contribution to the understanding of social change.
Wilbert Moore viewed social change as a total transformation of the pmodern society into the modern society. The basic conditions for industrialization include change in values, institutions, organizations and motivations. According to David Mc Clelland, the factors such as values, motives of the person facilitate social change. Modernization or development, he concluded, can be achieved through a process of diffusion of culture, ideas and technology.
Modernization theory has been criticized by A.G. Frank who opined that they do not bring out the social and economic processes at work in the underdeveloped countries. Also, development would not occur in all societies by merely adopting the economic policies and parliamentary democracy of the West.
Till recently a clear distinction was not made between the concepts of development, change and evolution and progress. Since the mid-twentieth century, these terms have been specifically defined. Development is the social change, which is planned and desired by a society. The sociological approach to development looks at this process as alterations that affect the whole socio-cultural matrix of society.
Planning has assumed significance in social change. Plan changed or development is viewed as transformation that aims to minimize the negative effects or impacts. It is a needed strategic intervention, which is essential to promote socio-economic development. While development is a value-loaded term, change is value-neutral. All change is not necessarily development. In recent decades there is an emphasis on social planning, as a significant factor in bringing almost desired social change.
After independence India faced with the challenge of dismantling the colonial economy and erecting in its place base for a modern, independent and self-reliant economic order. Indian Constitution incorporated its aim to build a socialist, secular, democratic polity. It emphasized not merely economic development, but socio-cultural development as a whole. Several development schemes were launched which incorporated the principles of socialism, equality, social justice and democracy.