Identify the various Sub-Markets in the Financial Market.
Sub-Markets in the Financial Market.
The two types of financial markets are Capital market and Money market. Both the markets are further divided into Primary and Secondary markets.
Capital Markets: A capital market is one in which individuals and institutions trade financial securities. Organizations and institutions in the public and private sectors also often sell securities on the capital markets in order to raise funds. Thus, this type of market is composed of both the primary and secondary markets.
Money Market: The money market is a segment of the financial market in which financial instruments with high liquidity and very short maturities are traded. The money market is used by participants as a means for borrowing and lending in the short term, from several days to just under a year. Money market securities consist of negotiable Certificates of Deposit (CDs), banker’s acceptances, U.S. Treasury bills, commercial paper, municipal notes, euro, dollars, federal funds and repurchase agreements (repos). Money market investments are also called cash investments because of their short maturities.
The money market is used by a wide array of participants, from a company raising money by selling commercial paper into the market to an investor purchasing CD’s as a safe place to park money in the short term. The money market is typically seen as a safe place to put money due the highly liquid nature of the securities and short maturities.
Because they are extremely conservative, money market securities offer significantly lower returns than most other securities. However, there are risks in the money market that any investor needs to be aware of, including the risk of default on securities such as commercial paper.
Primary Markets and Secondary Markets.
A primary market issues new securities on an exchange. Companies, governments and other groups obtain financing through debt or equity based securities. Primary markets, also known as “new issue markets,” are facilitated by underwriting groups, which consist of investment banks that will set a beginning price range for a given security and then oversee its sale directly to investors.
The primary markets are where investors have their first chance to participate in a new security issuance. The issuing company or group receives cash proceeds from the sale, which is then used to fund operations or expand the business.
The secondary market is where investors purchase securities or assets from other investors, rather than from issuing companies themselves. The Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) registers securities prior to their primary issuance, then they start trading in the secondary market on the New York Stock Exchange Nasdaq or other venue where the securities have been accepted for listing and trading.
The secondary market is where the bulk of exchange trading occurs each day. Primary markets can see increased volatility over secondary markets, because it is difficult to accurately gauge investor demand for a new security until several days of trading have occurred. In the primary market, prices are often set beforehand, whereas in the secondary market only basic forces like supply and demand determine the price of the security.
Secondary markets exist for other securities as well, such as when funds, investment banks or entities such as Fannie Mae purchase mortgages from issuing lenders. In any secondary market trade, the cash proceeds go to an investor rather than to the underlying company/entity directly.