List the Major Achievements and Weakness of New Economic Policy 1991.
The Major Achievements of New Economic Policy are:
- GDP Growth: GDP rose from 0.8 percent in 1991-92 to 7 percent for the period from 1994-95 to 1996-97.
- Increase in Gross rate of return (ROR) on Capital: In 1995-96, the gross rate of return was recorded at a high of 16.1 percent.
- Decline in inflationary trend of Wholesale Price Index (WPI): The WPI declined to 4.6 percent in 1995-96 from 13.7 percent level in 1991-92 (at 1981-82 prices).
- Rise in foreign reserves: The foreign exchange reserves increased to US. $ 25.4 billion (July 4, 1997) from US $ 2.24 billion in 1990-91.
- Improvement in Index of Industrial Production: The industrial production index rose to 11.8 percent, in 1995-96 from merely 0.6 percent in 1991-92.
- Export growth: Exports rose to 20.8 percent in 1995-96 from 3.8 percent in 1992-93 (in US Dollars).
Some of the major weaknesses of New Economic Policy are:
- The New Economic Policy concentrates mainly on large corporate sector. The policy largely ignores small scale industries and agriculture sectors on which large population depend.
- Large dependence on foreign investment in several sectors of economy.
- The rate of Consumer Price Index (CPI) has increased over the years.
- Inadequate privatization due to strong resistance from labor unions.
- Government has disinvestment mostly in healthy industrial units and mote so to reduce the fiscal deficit, which is unjustifiable.
- The implementation of new economic policy has not helped in reducing fiscal deficit. Non-plan expenditures have been not reduced.