Structure of the Central Government in India.
Central Government Structure in India: India is Parliamentary Democracy modeled on the Westminster Parliamentary Democracy of the United Kingdom.
Accordingly the head of the government at the center (New Delhi) is the Prime Minister who has a Council of Ministers reporting to him and assisting him in the task of administration.
The head of the State is the President. He is a symbolic, nominal executive wielding real and substantive powers only in emergency situations.
Also read | The Election Commission of India.
All administration is carried on in his name by the Prime Minister and the Ministerial Council.
The legislature, the judiciary and the executive (comprising the political establishment and the bureaucracy) comprise the three organs of branches of the government.
This structure of government, like in parliamentary democracies generally, is based on the principle of fusion of powers between the different government arms in contrast to a democratic government of the presidential type, which is based on separation of powers/checks and balances.
Also read | The Preamble of the Indian Constitution.
The government structure in New Delhi, the Capital of country and the seat of the central government, is replicated in the constituent units-the states of the Indian Union.
Thus, corresponding to the Prime Minister and his Council of Ministers at the Center, we have the Chief Minister heading a Ministerial Council in a state. Similarly, corresponding to the President in the Center, we have the Governor as the symbolic, nominal executive in a state government.
Like the figurehead President ac the Center, the Governor exercises substantial powers only. in situations of emergency.
The major details of the executive branch of a democratic government in India at the Center and in the states.
Also read | The different roles of ICT.
The legislature and the judiciary are the other two major Organs of the government. The pattern at the Center is duplicated in the states.
Thus, as regards the central legislature (Parliament), it is bicameral (two houses) with a lower house (Lok Sabha or the House of the People) and a upper house (Rajya Sabha or the Council of States).
This pattern is seen in the states where the lower house or chamber is the Assembly (Vidhan Sabha) and the upper house is the Legislative Council (Vidhati Parishad) but some of the Indian states have a unicameral (one house only) legislature; they do not have the Vidhan Parishad.
Also read | What is Entropy Law?
The Judiciary is the central court also the highest ranking court in the country- is the Supreme Court (again located in New Delhi) headed by a Chief Justice of the high court and assisted by other judges.
India has a well defined government structure with the form and pattern at the center being duplicated in the states. Such as well-delineated structure normally facilitates the democratic process in a country.