What do understand by Classification and Tabulation in Data Analysis?
In order to render the collected data suitable to be used for investigation, they are classified on the basis of likeness of their nature and properties and the classified data are shown in the form of tables in order to present them Precisely.
Many a unit from the total units of the universe are homogeneous and they are classified into different groups on the basis of homogeneity and the total information of the universe are presented in an arranged and precise manner by placing different groups in table-forms.
The process of classification and tabulation is of great importance for statistical operations because from a mere heap of collected information no results can be arrived at.
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For example, in an investigation pertaining to the population of a place, data in the beginning about male, female. adult, child, educated, uneducated, employed and unemployed persons of each family will be collected through schedules and questionnaires.
But in order to get result from these data it will be necessary that data about all the categories mentioned above of all the families are placed in different groups. It is. only then that the number of men, women, major and minor persons of that place can be known.
Likewise, educated, uneducated, employed and unemployed constituting the population can also be known.
These various groups can be put in a table which gives a clear picture of the whole universe. Therefore, facts not classified and properly arranged don’t serve any purpose. In this connection J.R. Hicks says, “Classified and arranged fads speak themselves, unarranged they are as dead as mutton.”
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Meaning of Classification of Data:
Classification of data is grouping of the collected data in various classes on the basis of likeness or similarity of their property, nature and tendency.
Some units are alike despite there being diversity among the units of the universe and to group or classify all the units on the basis of this likeness from the prevailing diversity into some classes is called classification.
Thus, classification means arranging data inappropriate order and putting them into homogeneous groups. According to Prof. L.R. Cannor, “Classification is the process of arranging things (either actually or notionally) in groups or classes according to their resemblances and affinities and gives. expression of the unity of attributes that may subsist amongst diversity of individuals.”
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Object of Classification:
Following are the objects of classification:
To Simplify Facts: Classified data are in simple form. Classified data may be easily understood and may be put in short form. Therefore, the object of classification is to simplify the data.
To Express Similarity and Dissimilarity: One of the objects of classification of data is to arrange them according to their similarity and dissimilarity so that they may be easy to understand, for example, classification of population according to education, marital status, literacy, etc.
To Help in Comparison: Unless the data are classified, they will not be comparable. But after classification the data can be compared. For example, if we want to compare the standard of different colleges of Rajasthan University, we will have to make the data comparable by classifying them in different classes.
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To Express Relationship: This is also the object of classification to express relationship of data by classification so that the cause and effect may be understood.
To Increase the Utility of Data: When the data are classified, they can be used by other persons also. Hence, classification increases the utility of data.
To Form the Basis of Tabulation: The first step for tabulation is the classification, hence, it forms the basis of tabulation.
Characteristics of Good Classification:
A good classification should have following characteristics:
Comprehensiveness: Classification should be as much comprehensive as possible. It should include all the units in it.
Separate Classes: Classification should be such that every different unit is put in a separate class, and the question as to where to place a particular unit should not arise. In other words, classification should be clear and simple.
Stability: Every classification should have a quality of stability. Once a classification is done on a particular basis, that basis should not be changed again and again. Otherwise, the data will not be comparable.
Conformity: Classification should be in conformity with the object of investigation. If we want to study the standard of students, the classification should be according to marks.
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Homogeneity: In classification every unit of homogeneous quality should be placed in one class so that correct conclusions may be drawn.
Elasticity: Classification should have a characteristic of elasticity or flexibility so that it may be modified as per changed circumstances.
Meaning of Tabulation:
It is necessary to present the classified data into proper form so that they may be statistically analyzed and properly understood by a common man. For presenting the data we can use.
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All these three methods of presenting the data are explained in detail in different chapters. In this chapter we will deal with tabulation only. Tabulation is a method of presenting data in a systematic way in columns and rows. According to Connor, “Tabulation involves the orderly and systematic presentation of numerical data in a form designed to elucidate the problem under consideration.” Objects of Tabulation
Objects of Tabulation:
To Simplify Complex Data: When the data are tabulated then unnecessary spread over and duplication is removed. The data are presented in a systematic way in columns and rows so that it becomes simpler to understand them. Thus, it saves our time also.
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To Facilitate Comparison: By tabulation, comparison becomes easy because the table is distributed among different parts and we make totals of each part also. It facilitates comparisons.
To Give an Identity to the Data: When the data are presented in the form of a table, they can be used for other purposes also according to their similarity.
To Reveal Patterns: The trend of data can easily be understood by tabulation which is difficult without it.
Statistical Analysis: By, tabulating the data, they can be easily analyzed and interpreted and other statistical measures can also be applied.
Difference between Classification and Tabulation:
Both the processes of classification and tabulation are important in a statistical investigation. By both of them the data are presented in concise form. Even then following are the differences between the two:
- There is a difference in sequence. The data are classified first and tabulated only thereafter.
- In classification data are classified according to their similarity and dissimilarity but in tabulation classified facts are presented in columns and rows.
- Classification is a method of analysis while tabulation is a method of presentation of data.