What is Close System Approach of organization?
The close system approach is called as the rational model in which system is closed. It is based on the theory of formal organization. It stress on the structure of the organization and neglected the human factors. The close system is planned in such way that there is no scope for any part to malfunction. In the close system approach, there are three major models—scientific management, administrative management, and Weberian bureaucracy.
Scientific management focus on higher productivity and organizational of efficiency. It increases the rate of production by its standardized tools, equipment and methods. It studies the time and motion of each task to be complete. Thus it is said that Taylor’s scientific and systematic management was a remedy to inefficiency in production.
It stress on the organizational efficiency. Thus, standardization of work methods was the key to improved efficiency in the organization. Like scientific management, administrative management model also stress on the efficiency of the organization. For this purpose it formulated certain principles.
It is based on the division of work and coordination of activities. It also emphasis on the structural relationship among the units of the organization such as production, supply, personnel them. Efficiency would be achieved by specializing in tasks and grouping them into departments. Regarding principle of administration Gullick and Urwick propose seven principles of public administration—POSDCORB—they stand for planning, organization, staffing, directing, coordinating, reporting, budgeting.
Like scientific management and administrative management, Weberian bureaucracy is a rational model. It identifies three types of authority, traditional, charismatic and legal-rational authority. Among them rational authority is grounded in the legitimacy of rational legel rules.
According to Weber bureaucratic system is the legal-rational authority system, which assures predictability of the behaviour of employees working in it. Here obedience is owed to an impersonal order, which has been legally established. The bureaucratic organization is designed in a ‘rational’ manner to accomplish the task in which work divided into highly specialized jobs.
Aim of these three models are to achieve efficiency through a closed system strategy. For this purpose scientific management focuses on higher production, administrative management focus on economic efficiency on staffing and structure. For organizational efficiency all these three models are applied in democratic and non-democratic countries, developed and developing countries.