What is Internet and Internet Software?
Internet is network of networks. These networks can be LAN, MAN or WAN. To access internet we need internet software’s. The Internet can serve the user with billions of web pages created by people and companies from around the world, to locate information and entertainment. It is also full of numerous services that help make life more convenient. The sub-units of internet are called sub-net and has a unique address and are connected using routers.
There are a number of search engines, which allow you to search the information you want. Google and Yahoo are one of them. These may fetch information from any of the sub-net as they use a common protocol for reliable data transfer over the internet known as Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP). The Internet is explored, which is more commonly referred to as surfing, using a computer browser.
- We need an interface card to get connected to internet.
- Internet uses TCP and IP (TCP/IP) as its basic protocol.
- The TCP is responsible for the reliable delivery of packets. The IP protocol is responsible for exact information of addresses of source and destination computer by its unique IP address.
- Internet can be used not only to find information but it is used for many other features like e-mailing, chatting, education, fund transfer, social networking, banking, shopping, etc.
- World Wide Web provides a pool of information by linking to hyper linked information.
Basic Software Components required to access Internet are:
- Operating System: It is required to make the computer working and also to get connected to internet.
- Internet Browser: It is a software used to locate, retrieve the contents from the world wide web and display it on the user’s Screen. Example: Internet Explorer, Netscape. It adds to the meaning of www by converting HTML pages into simple language.
- Firewall: While sharing information on such a big network, one may face security hazards. These could be virus, information theft, hacking, etc. In order to be safe it is recommended to use protection tools Firewall is one of them. If follows your instructions to make your computer secure, It restricts harmful information and programs coming your way.
- TCP/IP Protocol: This are set of standards which have to be followed while, communicating on internet.
How Internet Works:
TCP/IP Stack: Internet is used basically for data and information transfer and sharing on a large network. This transfer must be in a secure way, and to make it sure some set of protocols have to be followed. TCP/IP, software which was originally designed for the UNIX operating system, provides this to the computer. This is now available for almost every operating system.
There may be a bulk of data or information to be transferred over the net. The TCP works to divide the data into little data packets to be sent with proper information to make its re assemblage easy and accurate. The IP puts destination addressing information on each of the packets.
The Internet aims to work as a single network. It is a challenge to identify a computer on Internet though, it is not impossible. Every computer has a unique address over the Internet defined by IP such as 192.168.1.4. It works as a logical address and used to share information or communicate with other computers. When we demand for any web or Email address, it is converted into the equivalent IP address the server or resource. We can easily use website addresses and use Email addresses of our contacts, just imagine if we have to remember the IP address of all them.
TCP/IP Model: The TCP/IP Model or Internet Model or DoD model also has layers like OSI model.
Host to Host Network: It has four layers. These are not numbered these only have names. The bottom most layer deals with hardware. This layer also encodes and transmits data over to the physical layer of the receiver. A variety of methods are available for transmitting packets. This is dependent on the variety of connection. For example, dial up modern uses PPP and broadband uses PpoE to transmit data packets.
Internet Layer: This may work to deliver data and control the flow on same or different networks.
Transport Layer: It is the third layer of the TCP/IP model. It is positioned between Application layer and Internet layer. The purpose of transport layer is to permit devices on the source and destination hosts to carry on a conversation. Transport layer defines the level of service and status of the connection used when transporting data.
Application Layer: It is the top most layer of four layer TCP/IP model. It defines TCP/IP application protocols and how host programs interface with transport layer services to use the network.
Advantages of using TCP/IP
- This makes it possible for computers working .
- On various platforms to communicate.
- Superior failure recovery mechanism.
- New networks can be added.
- Most reliable protocol.