What is the Difference Between Jagirdar and Zamindar?
Jagirdars and Zamindar were the two types of intermediaries that collected the land revenue for the king during the mughal period. The land revenue was collected by these intermediaries who paid the pfixed share of the king and enjoyed the rights of the land. Let us discuss about these intermediaries in detail:
The Jagirdars were the king’s officials who enjoyed the land gifted from the King. They were the rank (mansab) holder given by the king called mansabdar. They were allotted non-inheritable land area equivalent to their fee amount called Jagir.
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These Jagirs are temporary in character and the Jagirdars only have the right to claim and enjoy the revenue collected from the land. The mansabs allotted were not the same for each year and revised from time to time i.e. Jagirdars got promotion or demotions. Jagirdar having more land area under him was more powerful and enjoyed the police jurisdiction as well. The major portion of the land was in the form of Jagirs.
The Jagirdars were not the permanent holder of land so they tried to collect as much revenue possible from the land. The peasants and Zamindars come under the Jagirdar. The Jagirdar had right to remove a Zamindar, detain the peasants and brought them back in case they ran away.
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The holder of land is termed as the Zamindar. They had the hereditary right over the land to claim share in the peasant’s output other than land revenues. They also have the right to detain the peasants. In most of the Mughal period the Zamindar collected land revenue from the actual tillers of land and for this they were allowed one tenth of the collections either in cash or an equivalent amount of tax free land.
Zamindari right was also sold and bought like goods. Persons like petty officials who accumulated wealth through grant of revenue converted themselves into zamindars. Zamindari right could also be mortgaged to money-lenders. Sometimes peasants of a Village also sold away their right to a person who became the zamindar of that village.
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Thus, during the Mughal period zamindars and peasants held villages were found side-by-side. The revenue is fixed by the kingdom but the amount payable , by the peasant depends on the discretion’s of the jagirdars and the zamindars.