What is the Jain Philosophy of Education and its Aims of Education?
Jain Philosophy of Education and its Aims:
Samyak Juana (Right Knowledge):
Jain philosophy claims that a man is in the slavery kind of life as he is ignorant and unable to differentiate between pudgal i.e.,matter and atman i.e soul. Jain philosophy strongly claimed that an organism acquires the layers of pudgal according to his own action. These layers act as a hindrance in recognizing the difference between Jiva and Atm an. Pudgal does not refer to only the physical body but to the totality of all karmas and bad dispositions lying on the atman.
Vices may take form of Kama, Krodha, Lobha, Moha and Ahamkar. These are the causes of bondage. It is through the knowledge of reality that we can get rid of these vices and can become pure and then we differentiate between the spiritual and material. So, the ultimate aim of education is to develop this Samayak Jnana.
Samyak Charitra (Right Character):
Samyak Jnana helps to distinguish between what is right and what is wrong, what is spiritual and what material is. But to implement this Samyak Jnana in practice we need to polish our personality in such a way that is able to the right no matter how painful it may seem. We need to develop a state of equanimity which is not disturbed by the distraction of this mundane world. This stable state of ego is called Samyak Charitra or right character.
Samyak Darshan (Right Faith):
For the attainment of right knowledge and right conduct, we need to first develop right faith. Right faith implies having right kind of faith in the knowledge and the teacher who helps in attainment of right knowledge and right conduct. It is also used to refer to development of good dispositions after gradually destroying the bad dispositions. When we develop right faith then we become receptive to right knowledge and performing right actions.
For the development of right faith, an individual needs to attain a state of absolute disinterestedness or detachment from all kashyas (Kama, Krodha, Lobha, Moha and Ahamkar). These kashyas act as hindrance in development of right faith. Such an disinterested state from all kashyas is known as Nirjara.
Jain’s suggested Panchmuhavratas to aid the gaining aright knowledge, right conduct and right faith. These aA himsa (non-violence), Satya (truth), Asteya (non-stealing, Aparigraha (non hoarding) and Brahmacharya (abstinence).
Then one who wants to attain right knowledge and right faith and right conduct an individual should also follow following ten dhammas or gunas: Ksarna (forgiveness), Mardava (simplicity/ spontaneity), arjava (self-content), souch (purity), tapa (austerity), amamatva (detachment), tyaga (renunciation) and brahmacharya (celibacy).