What is the Role of New Technologies in Public Systems Management?
New Technologies Role in Public Systems Management
This effort will seek to discover the foundations of public management and how it relates to information technology, specifically understanding e-government and other technologies in the public domain. Public management is the development or application of methodical and systematic techniques, often employing comparison quantification, and measurement, that are designed to make the operations of public organizations more efficient, effective and increasingly responsive.
This is a considerably crisper, concise, and narrow definition compared to other definitions of public administration, and its sharper focus is attributable to the larger field’s encompassing of values in addition to those of efficiency, effectiveness and responsiveness.
In the past two decades, the subject of e-government has been given a great deal of attention. Previously, most research sought to define e-government and an overwhelming majority determined the term as being broadly defined as the use of information and communication technologies in the field of government. In order to better understand e-government studies, many researchers have used content analysis of e-government specific research.
Most analytical approaches examined the following aspects: outlooks on the impacts of e-government, research philosophy, methods and techniques, and practical recommendations.
The recent trend in e-government studies seeks to assess the development of e-government. Researchers hypothesize that e-government implementation is the result of New Public Management (NPM) and ultimately NPM seeks to make government more efficient. Pressures from public managers attempting to solve problems and from constituents, corporations, and others, attempting to control the actions of public managers have all influenced the promotion of e-government.
The aforementioned influences are related to performance and accountability, and have correspondingly promoted change in Public Administration theory, implementation, and use of e-government initiatives. Most importantly, they have ignited continual increases of technology in government initiatives and have also created a push for efficiency in the public sector.
E-government arose from the idea of the ability to measure public sector productivity. This concept derives from public administration theory which in the United States began with President Woodrow Wilson who was the first to consider the science of public administration.
In The Study of Administration Wilson wrote, “it is the object of administrative study to discover, first, what government can properly and successfully do, and, secondly, how it can do these proper things with the utmost possible efficiency and at the least possible cost either of money or of energy.” Wilson embraced the concept of reaching effective management by training civil servants and assessing their quality.” This train of thought transitioned into the New Public Management Philosophy.
New Public Management is an expansive and very complex term used to describe the upsurge of public sector reforms throughout the world since the 1960’s. New Public Management is a management philosophy used by governments that encourages modernization and efficiency of the Public Sector.
The main premise in the New Public Management reform movement is that more market orientation in the public sector will lead to greater cost-efficiency for governments, without having negative side effects on other objectives and considerations. The philosophy was to make the public system function equivalent to the private sector.
New Public Management compared to other public management theories, is more oriented towards outcomes and efficiency through better management of public budget. It is considered to be achieved by applying competition, as it is known in the private sector, to organizations of public sector, emphasizing economic and leadership principles.
New Public Management addresses beneficiaries of public services much like customers as with the private sector and conversely citizens as shareholders. In relation to e-government there has been a rise in corporations seeking to provide the public sector with there technological needs. Since the e-government resolution, private companies have taken a vested interest in marketing to the public sector.
Companies assert ability to offer the public sector technology solutions that that will enhance efficiency, communication and ultimately satisfaction.
E- Government, government’s use of information technology to exchange information and services with citizens, businesses and other branches of government is regarded as a more efficient manner of managing the public sector. E-government may be applied by the legislature, judiciary or administration in order to improve internal efficiency, the delivery of public services or processes of democratic governance.
E-government is often thought of as internet-based government however, many non-internet electronic government technologies can be used in this context. Some non-internet forms include telephone, fax, tracking systems, identity cards, smart cards and, polling station technology, television and radio-based delivery of government services, e-mail, online community facilities, newsgroups and electronic mailing lists, etc.
The most important anticipated benefits of e-government include improved efficiency, convenience, and better accessibility of public services. Research attests that e-government can only be as effective as the individuals administering.
Theorist state that it is a mistake to focus computer systems, hardware and software programs versus simple focusing on improved communications with, citizens. Implementation of e-government can be risky, expensive and challenging therefore, public managers must not only be technologically savvy, but also possess leadership ability in order for e-government to be effective.