Write a note on All Parties Conference 1928.
In February, 1928, the Congress called an All Parties Conference, in which representatives of all different parties like Congress, Hindu Mahasabha, Muslim league etc. were met under the president ship of Dr. M.A. Ansari with aim of establishing full Dominion self-government. And on 19 May 1928, a committee was appointed under Motilal Nehru to draft a constitution on which the Indians opinion were united.This appointment was the response of the challenge threw by Lord Birhenhead.The Committee’s Report which adopted in August was an outline draft of a constitution which was based on the principle of fully free and responsible government.
The main recommendations of the committee were:
- India should have the same constitutional status as the English Empire as other dominion with Parliament having powers to make laws and should be known as the Commonwealth of India.
- The Constitution should define citizenship and declare fundamental rights.
- The legislative powers should vested with the king and a Parliament having two chambers, and executive powers with the king which could be exercisable by the Governor General and the same provisions should be made for the establishment of responsible government in provinces in respect of governors and executive councils.
- Hierarchy, of courts of with Supreme Court at its apex be established.
The introduction of self-governing institution threatened the interest of princes who confronted the Nehru Committee and sought to help of British in this matter. So, a committee was appointed under Sir Harcourt Butler which laid stress on preservation of Princely states under the British Paramountoy.
The Nehru committee criticized this appointment and demanded that the conflict between Commonwealth of Indian and Princely states were to be referred to the Supreme Court.The Nehru report has its drawback it did not clearly defined the relation of center with the princely states. In May 1930, there was no federal features.
So, it faced criticism by different people and parties such as the younger section of Congress led by J.Nehru and S.C. Bose criticized the acceptance of Dominion status although complete Independence was the aim of Congress. And M.A. Jinnah rejected this report, they demanded federal constitution which give the complete independence in the province with residuary power and wanted separated electorates for Muslims.
On 31 December 1919 the Congress declared that Nehru report ceased to be valid. In May 1930 the Simon Commission Report was published which did not recommend the establishment of either responsible government or Dyarchly at the center. So, the Dominion status were not clearly defined, which resulted in the rejection of report and led to the mass movement i.e. civil disobedience movement.