Write a note on Continuity and Changes in Indian Administration Post 1947.
A sea change came in the political environment in 1947 when India became free. After Independence the administration, by and large, continued as it was, though with changed priorities and objectives. The reason for continuity was that the transfer of power from British rulers to the Indian people has been orderly and peaceful but it was accompanied with partition of the country which caused incalculable human suffering. Millions of people migrated and rehabilitation of refugees was a big challenge. A strong and competent administrative set-up was the need of the hour as many Muslim and European Civil Servants had left the country.
Before the newly liberated country could start projects of development and embark upon the path of nation building, two big problems came up. The partition of the country caused migration of millions of people to Pakistan and rehabilitation of those who came from Pakistan was urgently required. Secondly, the country had to face aggression from Pakistan in its northern state of Jammu and Kashmir. The unification of Princely States with the rest of the country was also a big challenge. While some of the Princely States readily accepted it, some of them were forced to accept it.
India adopted its own Constitution which preferred Parliamentary system of government and a federal polity with free periodic elections to the national Parliament and State Legislatures. Though it is based on the Constitution Act of 1935 but its objective and nature is altogether different The executive is made responsible to the legislature and judiciary is independent. The Constitution of India guarantees Fundamental Rights to the people and it contains Directive Principles of State Policy. This has radically changed the administrative system after Independence.