Write a note on plants and animals wealth of India?
In India, about 20,000 plant species exist, of these many are cultivated in India. These include cotton, jute, spinach, spices, etc. when it comes to animals, different breeds of cattle and buffalo originate in India which are used to plough our fields.
SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCEMENTS IN OUR AGRICULTURE PRODUCE : With the help of science and technology, the agricultural productivity in our country has increased. This has all been possible because of genetic manipulations.
Cereals and Millets: Rice is the main cereal of our country. The crops grown during monsoon i.e. from July to October are called Kharif crops like rice, maize, jowar, bajra, small millets, etc. and those grown post-monsoon i.e. between October and March are known as Rabi crops like wheat, barley, oat, etc.
Pulses and Soybean : Pulses which are rich in protein are the major source of diet of our country specially of vegetarians. Some commonly pulses are arhar, masoor, chana, etc. Soybean which is rich in protein is cultivated more on the hilly regions.
Oilseeds : The oil seeds of our country include groundnut, sesamum, soybean, sunflower, etc. These vegetable oils are used from oilseeds crops. Groundnut is one of the important oilseed crop.
Sugar Crops : Large varieties of sugarcanes are produced in our country and given to sugar mills for producing sugar. Sugar beet is another sugar yielding crop which has an excellent scope for cultivation on sail which has a very high amount of sodium.
Fibre Crops : Cotton is the foremost fibre crop in our country. The utilization of cotton cloths have decreased in our count/ with the increased utilization of synthetic fibre. Jute is another fibre crop cultivated in high rainfall regions.
Plantation Crops : Plantation crops include tea, coffee, cocoa, cashew. cardamom, black pepper, and other related spices which are of great demand both within and outside our country.
Potato and other Tuber Crops : Potato is propagated by seed tubers in the hilly regions that are free from pests. Other tuber -crops include sweet potato, Dioscorea etc.
Fruits and Vegetables : Fruits and vegetables are important. source of energy. Research is being Made to develop high yielding horticulture crops of better quality. These products” are produced seasonally.
Agroforestry : Forests are getting diminished at an alarming rate because of cutting wood from the trees for construction and other routine purposes. Shrub jungles and fuel wood trees are vanished very rapidly. Therefore, there is a. need to conserve these forests and plant more and more trees.
AGROTECHNIQUES Some agricultural techniques are being used these days as discussed below:
Cropping Systems : Multiple cropping techniques i.e. growing two or more crops in the same piece of land is one way to meet the growing food needs. Such inter cropping systems have a high production potential.
Input of Fertilizers : Adequate input of fertilizers like nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium provide major nutrients to the plants. Deficiency or excessive presence of these fertilizers should be avoided. With the proper input of these fertilizers, cereals and pulses can be grown to the maximum amount.
Crop Protection : Crop protection is required from getting damaged both in the fields and in the storage. Pest management should be done to avoid the damage caused by pests, insects, birds, etc.
LIVESTOCK : Livestocks include cattle, sheep, goats and pigs which provide us with milk, eggs, wool, skin and other by products. Livestocks provide us with the power for agriculture operations and transport. Let us study about these livestocks.
Cattle : Cattles are used for domestic as well as for laborious work. Buffaloes are also used as work animals in swampy regions to which cattle are not suited. Cows are milk producing animals which produce and average of about 3,000 liters of milk.
Sheep and Goats : Large varieties of sheeps are used for producing wool for making carpets and clothes. Goat which is a versatile and cheap animal produces easily digestive milk. Some variety of goat produces soft and warm fiber used for making shawls.
Pigs : Pig is a dirty animal which is maintained by economically backward classes. It has the capability to turn most of its food into high quality protein.
POULTRY : Poultry products in our country are growing at a phenomenal rate. Today, India is self-sufficient in producing food and medicines needed for all poultry animals.
FISHERIES : Fish is an excellent source of protein: Because India has a long coastline and large adjoining area of water, therefore We have a large scope of producing fishes.
Marine Fisheries : We catch fish. from the seas. Sophistical technologies are used for catching fish. These fishes are then stored using cold storage method and canning.
Inland Fisheries : Inland fisheries are of two types, one is capture type which are captured directly from rivers. Whereas in culture fisheries. fishes are first grown in ponds and pools and then caught when are of right size.