Write a note on Social Planning in India.
Social planning was a positive tool for resolving imbalances and contradictions in a great and mixed country such as India. The board measured all aspects of planning and shaped a sequence of studies on diverse subjects concerned with fiscal expansion. Just after the achievement of independence, government set up planning commission in 1950s to review the country’s need of material capital and human resources so as to make plan for their fair and successful consumption.
Objectives of Social Planning in India.
These directive principles offer instruction of state policy .The directive principles is a phrase of the will of people for monetary growth and as a result the government adopted planning as a means for nurturing economic and social development. Four long-term objectives are:
- To increase manufacture to the utmost possible scope so as to attain higher level of state and per capita returns.
- To get full service.
- To decrease inequalities of earnings prosperity.
- To set up a communist society based on impartiality, honesty and lack of mistreatment.
The social organization envisaged was a socialistic pattern of society. The people were predictable to contribute in. the course of preparation on the widest possible level.
Five Year Plans.
The main vehicle of planning, was the Five Year Plan. Though the First Five Year Plan (1951-56) was basically a simple exercise of putting together programs, targets and outlays, it provided the first milestones in rural development through the launching of the community development programs, national extension services.
Second Five Year Plan was conceived in an ambiance of fiscal constancy. The fundamental viewpoint of second five year plan was therefore to provide a big push to the financial system so that it enters the impression stage. Besides, the administration announced its trade rule in 1956 accepting the founding of socialistic blueprint of civilization as the aim of monetary policy.
Among the priorities scheduled in the Third Plan, it was normally predictable that cultivation had the first place, The Third Plan differed from the second plan. It is usually documented that there was a universal de-emphasis of farming in the second plan. The third plan attempted to reverse this.
Indian planning suffered two major shacks caused by exogenous factors in the 1960s. The first came in the form of the conflict with China in 1962 and the second in the type of consecutive yield failure in 1965 and 1967. The new approach came to be implemented throughout the course of the Fourth Five Year Plan (1969-1974) and was more commonly known as the “Green Revolution” in agriculture. Thus indoors the accepted slogan of Garibi Hata and with it came the importance on poverty mitigation as a different planning goal in its own right.
Thus, the basic approach of Fifth Five Year Plan was development with reorganization. However, on description of the serious harvest failure of 1972-73 and the oil disaster of 1973, inflationary pressures compulsory Indian planners to limit the motivated programs they had envisaged. The Sixth Plan (1980-85) again undertook abolition of deficiency as its major aim. The IRDP attached with rural service programs, the lowest Needs Programe and the district expansion programs meant that the Sixth Plan had strong importance on the rural sector.
Poverty improvement sustained to be a vital concern in the Seventh Plan. In the course of seventh plan, the accent had shifted towards the concept of transformation again this time in trade. With this came the relative de-emphasis on the civic sector as an engine of development.
The Eighth Five Year Plan (1990-95) could not take of due to varying political position at the center. Eighth Five Year Plan (1992-97) was launched instantly after the opening of structural alteration policies and universal stabilization measures which were necessitated by aggravation stability of payment position and price raises position during 1990-91.
The Ninth Five Year Plan (1997-2000) launched in 50th year of India’s sovereignty, The prime task of this plan was to escort in a new era of enlargement with social justice, in which not only the rule at the center and states, but the people at large, even the poor can become effected in participatory planning procedure.
Multi-Level Structure of Planning.
The significant characteristic of scheduling in India is that it operates in a self-governing structure, through a central scheme, involving simultaneous planning at the countrywide and state level. The centralized character of India’s Constitution demands planning at least at two levels i.e. amalgamation and State. Planning in India has to be viewed in provisions of actions at diverse district and organization levels extending well beyond merger and shape structure.
National Level Planning.
The Planning Commission is the nominal body for facilitating the planning procedure in India. It was set tip by the Government in March 1950. It is performs its role as an suggested body operations at the highest policy level without further being involved in the responsibilities of every day organization. The prime minister is the Chairman of Planning Commission.
National Development Council:
The matter of financial and public planning is in the simultaneous list as this is a topic in which the Center as well as the states are concerned and have to work in agreement. The system of discussion in the formulation of policies on the basis of overall national necessity is the essential point of planning in the country. The National Development Council is the maximum policy making body which provides the chance for plans to be formulated and implemented all over the state as a combined expansion effort.
State Level Planning:
In the states, a number of organizations and departments are involved in the planning process.
State Planning Department:
On account of diversity in managerial association in different States and. Union Territories of the country, it is not probable to have a single standardized pattern for the planning equipment at that level. Basically the Planning Department is accountable for coordinating the growth effort in the state.
In most state in addition to the States Planning Department, there exists a State Planning Board. It comprises the ministers concerned, experts, non-officials and officials. Normally, the role of such a Board is recommended, connecting to plan strategies. It also suggests traditions and means to progress the operational of various programs in the state.
Department of Economics and Statistics, Manpower and Evaluation:
The Department of Economics and Statistics provides mechanical workforce at the state and lower levels for planning and monitoring of programs. The Manpower department assesses the necessities and need for manpower in the coming years and enables the planning process to include action plans for gathering the overall manpower requirements for plan execution.
The Evaluation Department is entrusted with assignment of conducting assessment studies of the different programs being undertaken on simultaneous or ex post facto basis.
District Level Planning:
District Level Planning prerequisite of district planning arises from the need to enhancement the national and state plans with a more detailed assessment of potentials at the mid-unit of management i.e. the district. District planning involve, remarkable a balance between specific requirements of the people of the constituency, growth potentials of the area and budgetary allotment available.
Its aim should be to bring all managerial operations at the district level under successful synchronization and manage of single agency and clearly lay down a programme of work for the participating agencies. At the district level most of the heads of departments are represented by officials termed as District level Officers.
For example, there are Executive Engineers for PWD, Public Health, and Engineering Department etc. These officials are part of the planning process at district level. In 1980, the District Rural Development Agencies were set up to plan, execute and monitor such programmers.
Block Level Planning:
The community development block is the assignment of planning is undertaken in the country. Block planning fundamentally means planning for the development of block within a particular time frame. Block planning basically goes through the planning work out at the local level.
The block planning has its source in the founding of community expansion blocks under the Community Development Programe (CDP) in 1952. These blocks were measured as appropriate units for planning and development purposes. Block plans could not be formulated in the essential manner as there was lack of proficiency on the one hand and lack of synchronization between diverse functionaries working at that level.
Since block level planning has been assumed in the district planning work out, this has diluted the advancement of block level planning in the country. In our nation the planning method is fundamentally decentralized in nature in the sense that the powers, responsibilities and duties have been handed over to the people in general to ensure the successful accomplishment of plans and policies with maximum people’s involvement.
Approaches to Social Planning:
Approaches to social planning may be briefly recounted:
Planning by individual sectors like teaching, physical condition, accommodation and communal safety are included in sectoral planning.
Area Development Approach:
This app-roach contemplates that expansion of an area depends not only on the progress of an sufficient communications system but also the way factors of the local country are activated approximately the production infrastructure. The move towards, while taking area poverty in to reflection, provides a equilibrium between various sectoral activities as well as spatial prototype of development.
Integrated Development Approach:
In the framework of troubles in the area development approach are the government guiding principle to deal with the harms of rural poverty, a new policy of progress, i.e. the incorporated growth approach has been developed because the area development approach by and large failed to concentrate on the question of inequalities in the allotment of employment, incomes and assets.
The difficulty requires an approach that will take into account all these factors in devising a inclusive strategy to further rural development. The concept of integrated rural development came into trend with the need fora flexible power to rural planning.
The different proportions of rural life expansion of crop growing and associated activities, rural industrialization, learning, fitness, community mechanism, deficiency lessening and rural employment programs all form a part of an incorporated approach to the problems of rural, development.
Components of Planning:
Spatial plan would necessitate to believe the physical possessions, earth use and all human settlements in a county right from smallest conclusion to the city.
Economic planning has conventionally been the case of core of scheduling, since a standard aspire of development planning has been to raise service and income. Essential fundamentals of monetary scheduling are information about the state of following in the district: possessions, demographic features; economic features; socio-economic features, infrastructural factors sectoral profiles
The mission of a plan is also to diminish social inequalities, make available social services and guarantee community involvement. For any plan, public participation is both an significant instrument and a purpose for development since planning is the medium of social revolution and means to link the gap between regime and the people.
Achievement or breakdown of social planning is eventually prejudiced by the opinionated and executive set up of planning mechanism. The operational group on district planning in its 1984 report, considered the following administrative aspects for smooth functioning of planning process,
- Establishing mechanisms for synchronization and execution of plan,
- Introducing bureaucratic innovations for release of funds and events for implementation inter-sectoral and intra-sectoral transfers,
- Establishing procedures for monitoring and assessment of schemes.