Write a short note on partition of Bengal.
Apart from whole Bengal, it originally comprised of whole Bihar, Orissa and Assam. So, it was a territory of diverse population using various languages and dialects. Even earlier, the British did think of reducing the size of the province for administrative convenience. In 1874, Assam was separated from Bengal. But Curzon and his main advisors i.e. Sir A. Fraser, and H.H. Risley used the plea for territorial readjustment to throttle the voice of nationalism. And to hurt and to break the spirit of national leaders.
THE MOTIVE BEHIND THE PLAN
Lord Curzon and his advisors had always considered Bengal as a great threat to British Empire in India. Curzon had a feeling that people of Bengal are gradually getting stronger and might be a source of increasing trouble in the future. Moreover, the Bengalis were the pioneers in flourishing the nationalistic and patriotic feelings. The Britishers assessed Bengal as, “Bengal united is a power, Bengal divided will pull in several different ways.” So, the Curzon and company were determined “to split up and weaken a solid body of opponents”.
Besides, by dividing Bengal, Curzon intended to crack a Muslim majority province and to utilize Muslim against the Hindu force. This mischievous game was being played just to cripple the educated Indian Middle class nationalist.
On 1 June„ 1903, the final scheme of division was sent to the London for sanction. On 2 February-1905. On 19 July, 1905, the- government, announced its decisions to form a new province of ‘Eastern Bengal and Assam.
THE MISCALCULATION OF THE GOVERNMENT
Curzon and his advisors made their own calculation about the kind of resistance. They thought they might faced some weak resistance, and it will remain confined to protest, meeting and procession that could easily to be tolerated and ignored. And this feeling of disturbance and all worries among Nationalist leaders, Bengali Zamindars, Calcutta High Court lawyers will subside in course of time.
The Government had not even an idea of the stormy political movement, the partition led to the imprecated militancy and the battle for Swaraj. The British failed to grasp the feeling of unity and pride in their attainment.