Write a short note on Popular Movement After 1857.
List of Popular Movement After 1857.
Indigo Riots: The Britishers forced the peasants to grow indigo at loss instead of foodgrain which they needed for survival. This created a lot discontentment in peasants, which bursted in the form of riots in 1859, in Bengal. This indigo riot also knocked down the plantation system in lower Bengal, forcing the planters to shift to Bihar.
Moplah Uprising: Moplah uprising took place at Malabar in 1850-1900. The uprising was against the landlords and Britishers. It was essentially a class conflict between the Jenmi Landlords who were the Hindus and the Moplah Peasants, who were the Muslim. British had given it the communal colour. And this series of uprising lasted till 1900.
Pabna: Pabna Peasant movement of 1873-1885 took place in Bengal, against the zamindars, who forcibly converted tenants into tenant-at-will by the written agreement. The 1873, the Pabna Peasant formed an agrarian league, which, wanted to become We ryots of the ‘Queen of England’ for the redressal of their grievance; As the movement gathered momentum the oppressors presented it as a communal movement because majority of peasant activists were Muslims.
However, this movement was led by two Hindus that is Keshab Chandra Roy and Sambhunath Pal. The movement undermined the landlord’s perception of their right over the peasant.
Deccan Riots: Deccan Riots burst out in 1875, against the Vanis (village moneylender). The young Brahmin leaders of the Poona Sarvajanik Sabha and the dominant landed families which faced decline led the peasant. This riot resulted in the breakdown of the link that held the kunbis and vanis together. Even this class conflict was presented as caste conflict.
Koya Rebellions: The Koya rebellion’ occurred in 1879-1880 at the eastern Godavari region and some portions of Malkangiri region in Orrisa.Tomma Dora was the leader of this rebellion, who was shot dead by the police and the movement was collapsed.
Birsa Munda Revolt: Birsa Munda Revolt was the last popular revolt which developed between 1874 and 1901 in the Chotanagpur region of South Bihar. About 1895 the revolt was led by Birsa Munda, who was ruthlessly suppressed. And the revolt was against exploitative zamindar.