Write about the Revenue Administration of Guptas, and the methods adopted for irrigation during this period.
The Revenue Administration of Gupta’s:
Besides the times the main source of income of the State of Gupta’s was Land revenue. One sink of the produce was claimed as the royal revenue ‘uparikara’ (octroi) was a kind of tax levied on cloth, oil, etc. when transported from one city to another.
Sulka (commercial tax) was taken from the traders organization failing to which resulted in the cancellation of the right to trade and a fine of maximum eight times of the original ‘Sulka’.
The emperor’s income from royal lands and forests went into his personal treasure, he enjoyed the right to treasure coin hoards, jewels and other valuable objects. He also enjoyed right to Visthi (forced labor). Several officials were appointed to carry out the revenue administration.
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Pustapala ( record keeper): He made enquirers before recording any transaction.
Gopasramini: He entered several crises in the accounts registers, besides recovered royal dues. He also checked embezzlement and recovered fines for loss due to neglect or fraud.
The Methods Adopted for Irrigation during Gupta’s.
There w as a considerable concern towards agricultural production during Gupta period. This was reputed from the way irrigation received attention during the period. There were several methods adopted for irrigation. These were:
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Reservoir: The Sudersana reservoirs of Saurashtra was completely repaired after it was badly damaged during Mahakshatrapa. Skandgupta got it repaired.
Wells: This was another means of irrigation. In this water was drawn from
the wells and supplied means to the fields through carefully prepared channels.
Chain of pot Method: This was a mechanism prevalent even before Gupta period. In this method a number of pots tried to a chain; the chain with the pots reached down to the water of the hull and by making the chain and the pots rotate it was ensured that the pots would continuously fill with water and empty it. This method was also known as Araghatta or Gati.
In regions like Bengal, rain-water was being collected in ponds and other kinds of reservoir. In South India, tank irrigation was the method implied. Thus, Gupta empire saw prevalence of various methods of irrigation and the role of the state was to provide such irrigation facilities to the cultivators.