Write short note on Chalukyas of Vatapi, Varnasankara and Pallava Art.
Chalukyas of Vatapi:
After the decline of the Gupta Empire, Magadh, as a seat of power, also declines. In North India, apart from Harshvardhan word has no other major power could emerge. In South India, two important political powers emerged during this period. Chalukya of Vatapi were one these two powers. The other power was Pallavas of Kanchi. The first important ruler of the Chalukyas was Pulakesin I. The Chalukyas and the Pallavas had a long and continuous fight. The outcome of this struggle was never in favour of one power.
It kept fluctuating from one power to another Kirtivarman I, Pulakesian II, Vikramaditya I, Vikramaditya II etc. were some important Chalukyas rulers. Pulakesian II attacked North India also and defeated Harshvardhana. After defeating Harshvardhan, he took the title of Parmeswar’. He also defeated the brother of Pulakesian II Vishnuvardhan, also known as ‘Vishamsiddhi, established the rule of Chalukyas of Vengi. Next ruler, Vikramaditya defeated all his neighboring rulers and became the emperor of the land between three seas.
The Varna system was based on the division of the society among four varnas Brahmana, Kashtriya, Vaisya, Shudra. This division was based on birth. All the four varnas were to fellow the prescribed norms for their varnas. But at times this became difficult and the hierarchies of the varna order crumbled. The Brahmanas also had to adopt other occupation due to their economic necessities. The positions of the Vaisyas and the Shudras also kept fluctuating. At times, this varna distinction was disturbed at times of marriages also.
The offspring of the male and female of different varnas were called Varnashankara. This Kind of relationship could have been established between male and female of different varnas. The child out of male of higher varna and female of lower varna still had certain better rights as compare to the child out of male of lower varna and female of higher varna. But in both comes, the offspring were in the category of varnashankara.
There was enough development of Dravid art during the period of the Pallavas. The examples of architecture of Pallava period are found from Kanchipuram and Mahabalipuram. The Pallava architects gradually freed the architecture from the wooden work. The Pallava architecture is divided into four styles. There styles are named after four different kings of the Pallava dynasty. The first style is Mahendravarman style. In this style, the temple was called ‘Mandap’. There was a pillared varandah and one or two rooms which were constructed inside in the temples of this style.
The second style in Called MamaIla style. This style was during the time of Narsingh Varman. He had adopted the time of Mamalla and that’s why this style is called Mamalla style. The main centre of this style was Mamallapuram or Mahabalipuram. The temples in this style were called Mandap or Rath. The Rathas of Mamaller style are fam.ous as Sapt Pagoda. The third style in Raisingh Style. In this style independent temples were developed Kailasnath temple. Baikunth Perumal temple etc. are important examples of this style. The fourth style in Nandi Varman style. There in nothing new in this style, only the top of the pillars are more developed. The Mukteshwar temple, the Matangeshwar temple etc. are important examples of this style.