Write short note on Indian civilization.

Indian civilization is oldest continuous Civilization of the world. Urdu poet Iqbal said, Greek, Egyptian and Roman Civilization has been disappeared but our old civilization and tradition is continuous. Basic cause of our continuity is that we followed maxim of i.e., whole world is family and welfare of whole.ma.nkind. Due to these motives, we have survived in spite of migration of various races, and rale of Sultans, Mughal and Britisher’s and now India is considered greatest democracy of the world and recently it has been predicted that soon India may emerge as greatest developed country due to astonishing rapid growth.

Western scholars think that democracy began with Greek city-states without knowing that in India democracy began many thousand years ago. During time of Buddha. and Jain saints Parshvanath and Mahavira, there were many republics and democratic states such as Vaishali, Lichhvis and of Shakyas etc. These democratic states believed in pursuation and moral values, so produced, Buddha, Parshvanath and Mahavira and this tradition has been revived by Mahatma Gandhi under whose guidance India got independence, western scholars consider

Greek states as home of democracy because it was followed by Roman empire, British and French empires and various other countries. American Revolution and French Revolution gave new ideas of liberty, equality and of fraternity and of Parliamentary and Presidential government. Based on Marxist and socialist ideologies, which are now practiced all over the world in most of the states.

Indian democracy in ancient times of Buddha and Mahavira eclipsed during Mauryan empire, Gupta empire and Rajput period. Sultanate and Mughal period were monarchical periods of Indian history but even during these periods, villages continued to remain republics in miniature. According to Metecoff: Shakas, Hunas, Turks, Pathans and Mughals came and ruled but village republics continued.

During British rule, village republics and Panchayat got a setback, Bahadur Shah Zafar and Nana Sahib and their supporters effort to snatch powers from Britisher through revolt of 1857 failed and era of constitutional development and National Movement began.

Legacy of National Movement was that India got freedom and became greatest democracy having porml.qion of more than one thousand millions.

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