Write short notes on Ancient Indian coin and Rock art.
Ancient Indian coins:
Although a good number of coins and inscriptions has been found on the surface, many of them have been unearthed by digging the study of coins in called numismatics. Ancient coins were made of metal copper, silver, gold or lead. Coin moulds made of burnt clay have been discovered in large numbers. Since there was nothing like the modern banking system in ancient times, people kept money in earthen ware and also in brass vessels. They are preserved mostly in museums at Calcutta, Patna, Lucknow, Delhi, Jaipur, Bombay and Madras. Coins of the major dynasties have been cataloged and published. Our earliest coins contain a few symbols, but the later coins mention the names of kings, gods or dates. The areas where they are found indicate the region of their circulation.
Rock paintings and carvings also give us an insight into the subsistence pattern and social life of the Palaeolithic people. The earliest paintings belong to Upper Paleolithic age. Bhimbetka located on the Vindhyan range, is well known for continuous succession of paintings of different periods. Period belongs to Upper Palaeolithic stage and paintings are done in green and dark red colors. The paintings are predominantly of biscons, elephants, tigers, rhinos and boars. They are usually large, some measuring two-three meters in length. There is need to work out the frequency of the different types of animals to have more precise idea about the hunting life of Paleolithic people.
The paintings and engravings found at the rock shelters which the Mesolithic people used give us considerable idea about the social lfie and economic activities of Mesolithic people. Sites like Bhimbetka, Azamgarh, Pratapgarh and Mirzapur are rich in Mesolithic art and paintings. Hunting, food-gathering, fishing and other human activities are reflected in these paintings and engravings. Bhimbetka is extremely rich in paintings. Many animals like, boar, buffalo, monkey and nilgai are frequently depicted.